Neuropsychiatric “Comorbidity” as Causal Influence in Autism

Behavioral comorbidity is the rule rather than the exception in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and the co-occurrence of autistic traits with subclinical manifestations of other psychiatric syndromes (e.g. anxiety, developmental coordination disorder) extends to the general population, where there is strong evidence for overlap in the respective genetic causes. An ASD “comorbidity” can have several fundamentally-distinct causal origins: it can arise due to shared genetic risk between ASD and non-ASD phenotypes (e.g., ASD and microcephaly in the context of the MECP2 mutation), as a “secondary symptom” of ASD when engendered by the same causal influence (e. g., epilepsy in channelopathies associated with ASD), due to chance co-occurrence of ASD with a causally-independent liability (e.g., ASD and diabetes), or as the late manifestation of an independent causal influence on ASD (eg, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder).
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: In Context Source Type: research

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This study investigated the association of the five-factor model and trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) with camouflaging behaviours (masking and compensating for autistic characteristics) in a large sample of 278 autistic and 230 typically developing (TD) participants. Participants completed questionnaires assessing autistic traits, big five personality, trait EI, and social camouflaging of autistic traits. Camouflaging was negatively related to extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, while it was positively related to neuroticism. Trait EI was also negatively linked to camouflaging. The differences betwe...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
Purpose: Among eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, identify whether baseline characteristics impact the benefit of ranibizumab over panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in DRCR.net Protocol S. Methods: Participants had proliferative diabetic retinopathy, visual acuity of 20/320 or better, and no previous PRP. Eyes were randomized to PRP or intravitreous 0.5-mg ranibizumab. Results: Ranibizumab was superior to PRP for change in visual acuity and development of vision-impairing central-involved diabetic macular edema over 2 years (P
Source: RETINA - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Original Study Source Type: research
Conclusion: Multispectral imaging displayed an excellent agreement with fundus fluorescein angiography in DR grading, which suggested that it might serve as a new diagnostic technique and an informative tool for evaluating DR.
Source: RETINA - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Original Study Source Type: research
Purpose: To quantify retinal microvascular alterations using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic patients, and to evaluate the accuracy of decreased vessel density (VD) in predicting early diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: One hundred and two eyes of 51 diabetic patients and 92 eyes of 46 individuals without diabetes were examined. Duration of diabetes, insulin therapy, blood pressure, HbA1C, dyslipidemia, axial length, and the presence of DR were recorded. Retinal VD was measured using optical coherence tomography angiography. The effect of risk factors on VD and on DR was assessed using multivaria...
Source: RETINA - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Original Study Source Type: research
Purpose: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection combined with cataract surgery in the treatment of patients with cataract and coexisting diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: Pertinent comparative studies were identified through systemic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register up to March 1, 2016. Outcome measures included corrected distance vision acuity, central macular thickness, and progression of DR and maculopathy. A meta-analysis was performed using RevMan (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, United Kingdom). Results: Six studies describin...
Source: RETINA - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Original Study Source Type: research
ConclusionsMetS-Z remained linked to future CHD and diabetes when assessed from non-fasting samples. A score such as this may allow for identification of at-risk individuals and serve as a motivation toward interventions to reduce risk.
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
ConclusionOur results support the hypothesis that the process of atherosclerotic plaque calcification presents a number of similarities with the physiological processes that occur in bone, involving both osteoblasts- and osteoclasts-like arterial cells. Finally, the present study suggests that risk factors, such as hypertension, cigarette smoke and diabetes, can cause the destabilization of the atheromatic plaque acting on calcification process as well as inflammation.
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
According to this study: Aspirin has potential benefits in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with diabetes, but the risks may outweigh the benefits.The use of low-dose aspirin may need to be individualized, based on a person's risk of CVD and bleeding.
Source: AJN - Category: Nursing Tags: Journal Watch Source Type: research
According to this study: Five years after gastric bypass, adolescents and adults had weight loss that was similar in magnitude.Remission of diabetes and hypertension occurred more often in adolescents than adults.
Source: AJN - Category: Nursing Tags: Journal Watch Source Type: research
Abstract Pancreatic cancer is associated with a poor prognosis and high mortality. Thus, distress that includes depression and anxiety is a relatively common comorbidity for patients suffering from pancreatic cancer. However, these psychological symptoms are likely to be under-detected and undertreated. Regarding high levels of unmet needs of psychological support for patients with pancreatic cancer, early screening for distress and adequate interventions should be considered in palliative care settings. Suicide, a common but preventable cause of mortality for patients with pancreatic cancer, also deserves the fur...
Source: Korean J Gastroenter... - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Korean J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
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