AS1411-conjugated gold nanoparticles affect cell proliferation through a mechanism that seems independent of nucleolin
Publication date: Available online 20 July 2019Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and MedicineAuthor(s): Samaneh Kabirian-Dehkordi, Mounira Chalabi-Dchar, Hichem C Mertani, Dominique Le Guellec, Bernard Verrier, Jean-Jacques Diaz, Masoud A. Mehrgardi, Philippe BouvetAbstractG-rich oligonucleotide, AS1411, has been shown to interact with nucleolin and to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. This antiproliferative action is increased when AS1411 is conjugated to different types of nanoparticles. However, the molecular mechanisms are not known. In this work, we show in several cell lines that optimized AS1411-conjugated gold nanoparticles (GNS-AS1411) inhibit nucleolin expression at the RNA and protein levels. We observed an alteration of the nucleolar structure with a decrease of ribosomal RNA accumulation comparable to what is observed upon nucleolin knock down. However, the expression of genes involved in cell cycle and the cell cycle blockage by GNS-AS1411 are not regulated in the same way that in cells where nucleolin has been knocked down. These data suggest that the anti-proliferative activity of GNS-AS1411 is not the only consequence of nucleolin targeting and down-regulation.Graphical AbstractGold Nanospheres (GNSs) core is not affected by the loading of increasing amount of aptamers. GNSs were incubated with AS1411 oligonucleotides under different salt conditions as described in materials and methods in order to have different amounts of AS141...
Authors: Michalek J, Brychtova S, Pink R, Dvorak Z Abstract Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a growing problem worldwide. Several biological and molecular criteria have been established for making a prognosis of OSCC. One of the most important factors affecting the risk of tumor recurrence and overall prognosis is perineural invasion and bone invasion. Perineural invasion is defined as a tumor spreading and the ability of tumor cells to penetrate around or through the nerve tissue. Perineural invasion can cause the tumor to spread to distant areas from the primary tumor location. One possible explanation for ...
For men with localized prostate cancer (CaP), radical prostatectomy (RP) as well as radiotherapy (RT) was associated with lower incidences of progression and metastases than was active monitoring.1 Meanwhile, prospective trial showed these patients with a long life expectancy would benefit from surgical intervention with a mean gain of almost 3-year of life.2 Unfortunately, when localized CaP progressed to incurable metastatic disease ancestral subclones and stromal micro-environment evolved dynamically in space and time following principles of selective evolution, underpinning important emergent features such as therapeut...
Retrospective evaluations of the treatment of the primary tumor in the setting of metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) are prevalent in the recent literature. The majority of these reports have favored the addition of local therapy1 and form the hypothesis generating support for recently completed and ongoing prospective randomized studies.2,3 Interestingly, in the present retrospective study, cancer-specific survival was not improved with local therapy. This is intriguing since the patients were subject to similar selection biases present in other retrospective reviews favoring local therapy.
The accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for prostate cancer detection has been demonstrated in multiple studies, but the interpretation of prostate MRI can be quite challenging. In particular, changes caused by aging (ie, hyperplasia) or by pathologic conditions such as inflammation or cancer can lead to a nearly singular appearance on MRI for each prostate. Additionally, the lack of robust standardization across MRI scanners hampers the adoption of quantitative parameters for imaging analysis.
Cystoscopic surveillance, as recommended by the American Urology Association and the European Association of Urology guidelines, is the current gold standard for monitoring non –muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).1,2 For low-risk NMIBC, at low risk of recurrence or progression, these guidelines recommend surveillance cystoscopies at 3 and 12 months, and annually thereafter. Moreover, there is recommendation by some national expert bodies to curtail continual cystosco pic surveillance beyond 12 months in those at lowest risk for recurrence.
The treatment options for metastatic prostate cancer have increased dramatically over the past decade, including novel hormonal therapies, chemotherapies, and radiopharmaceuticals. The administration of myelosuppressive chemotherapies has generally been supervised by medical oncologists in the United States. The oversight of oral agents such as abiraterone + prednisone (abi) and enzalutamide (enza) has been less well defined. This issue of the Gold Journal describes the increasing role of urologists in prescribing these agents.
The management of patients with prostate cancer, in contrast to that of most other neoplasms is somewhat unique in that care of patients is typically overseen to a variable degree by a variety of different clinicians including urologists, radiation, and medical oncologists over a disease course that may extend over many years.
We agree that the wide variability in postoperative chemotherapy use observed in our study underscores the need to increase guideline-consistent care for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. The physician factors we examined – including physician age, years employed at our institution, specialty training in oncology, and experience treating bladder cancer – did not explain the treatment variability. As Dr. Schroeck noted, other physician factors, such as the level of concern about side effects or awareness of and ag reement with guidelines, may be important contributors to treatment variability.
The authors report on a retrospective cohort study of 5386 patients diagnosed with nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) at Kaiser Permanente Southern California between 2001 and 2015. They find that 41% of patients received any intravesical therapy. Use of postoperative intravesical chemotherapy was rarer (given to 17%), but increased over time. There was substantial variation in use of intravesical therapy across urologists. The variation was greatest for use of postoperative intravesical chemotherapy, with 45% of the observed variation explained by the treating urologist.
Conclusions: 3D semiautomatic quantification of PPV is feasible and reproducible using CT in patients with occupational exposure to asbestos. PPV measurement may be useful to correlate with other asbestos-related disease outcomes and prognosis.