Low thermal budget bonding for 3D-package by collapse-free hybrid solder
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2019Source: Materials Chemistry and PhysicsAuthor(s): Tzu-Ting Chou, Rui-Wen Song, Hao Chen, Jenq-Gong DuhAbstractThe collapse-free joints were successfully built under a low reflowing temperature of 185°C via using the Sn-Ag-Cu(-Ni)/Sn-Bi hybrid solders. Such a structure with middle and low melting points solders could prevent the infrastructure of 3D packages from collapse caused by overweight of stacked dies on substrates. Furthermore, a low bonding temperature could reduce the consumption of thermal budget during chip fabrication. By introducing Ni-doped Sn-Ag-Cu solder, the potential harm micro-Ag3Sn particles adjacent to the interfacial Cu6Sn5 layer in Sn-Ag-Cu/Sn-Bi/Cu joints were suppressed. Also, the microstructure of the hybrid joints was investigated in detail as well.Graphical abstract
ConclusionOverweight and obesity was higher in males as compared to females, those who were in the upper class and those who were older than 23 years.
ConclusionBeside the improvements in the laboratory variables, the individualized FATmax training can also benefit daily physical capacity of older people with type 2 diabetes.
Abstract Adipokines are peptide mediators produced by fat cells in adipose tissue that exert a powerful influence on many body systems, including the immune system. Leptin and adiponectin are among the best known of these molecules and have been shown to affect the functions of, for instance, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and innate lymphoid cells. Here we present the results of a new study that describes the effects of leptin and adiponectin on mast cells, a cell type which plays an important role in controlling inflammatory responses. This provides an improved understanding of how obesity may contribute to chron...
No abstract available
Publication date: September 2019Source: Trends in Endocrinology &Metabolism, Volume 30, Issue 9Author(s): Zhiyong ChengAutophagy controls cellular remodeling and quality control. Dysregulated autophagy has been implicated in several human diseases including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Current evidence has revealed that FoxO (forkhead box class O) transcription factors have a multifaceted role in autophagy regulation and dysregulation. Nuclear FoxOs transactivate genes that control the formation of autophagosomes and their fusion with lysosomes. Independently of tra...
ConclusionsOur data demonstrate an interaction between a peripheral hormonal signal and central nervous activity as robust predictor of body weight change throughout the different periods of a long-term life-style intervention. The preeminent role of their interdependency compared to the partly ambivalent effects of the single components argues for integrative approaches to improve sensitivity and reliability of weight prediction conventionally based on individual biomarkers.
The objective of the current study is to investigate gender differences and the impact of wealth and income from pensions, sociodemographic variables, and self-assessment of health conditions on the projected probability to become obese in the postretirement age (67 years and older). We are unaware of previous studies, which explored the direct relationship between obesity, monetary income from pensions, wealth, and self-assessment of health conditions. To conduct this research, we make use of an extensive questionnaire concerning the economic and sociodemographic features and health and housing conditions of indivi...
Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease typically characterized by erythema, plaques and scaling. Proinflammatory cytokines including TNF- α, IL-23, and IL-17 are upregulated in psoriatic lesions and promote hyperproliferation of keratinocytes. Furthermore, psoriasis is seen as a systemic inflammatory disease associated with psoriatic arthritis, obesity and cardiometabolic comorbidities. Obesity negatively affects psoriasis disease se verity by producing proinflammatory adipokines by adipocytes and infiltrated immune cells and aggravates furthermore the cardiovascular risk in psoriasis patients.
Background: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a debilitating and distressing chronic inflammatory skin disease. Other chronic inflammatory diseases have been linked with metabolic syndrome. However, it is unclear whether this association is independent or driven by underlying risk factors and comorbidities in common, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension.
Introduction: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a debilitating and distressing chronic inflammatory skin disease. It is characterized by recurrent, painful, deep-seated skin nodules which can be complicated by abscesses formation, sinus tracks, fistulae and scarring. There is also evolving evidence supporting the association between HS and cardiovascular risk factors, including smoking, obesity, hyperlipidaemia, and metabolic syndrome. Notably, these are clinical features and risk factors that are closely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).