Multi-Task Learning based Survival Analysis for Multi-Source Block-wise Missing Data

Publication date: Available online 20 July 2019Source: NeurocomputingAuthor(s): Yan Li, Lu Wang, Jiayu Zhou, Jieping YeAbstractThere are many major diseases that remain incurable, such as cancer and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, the prevention for these diseases has more impact than diagnosis and treatment. Survival analysis aims at predicting the time of occurrence of specific events of interest. It can be used to identify patients of high risk, which helps healthcare system effectively allocate limited medical resources. In many real-world applications, such as healthcare analysis, a lot of datasets are collected from multiple data sources and exhibit a block-wise missing pattern, i.e., each patient takes different types of tests and receives various treatments, and each test/treatment associates with a set of corresponding features. However, the existing survival analysis methods such as the Cox proportional hazards model and its extensions are designed for fully observed datasets and can not be directly applied when such block-wise missing pattern presents. This paper addresses this challenge and enables the survival prediction models to deal with high-dimensional multi-source block-wise missing data. Specifically, we employ a partition method that decomposes the multi-source block-wise missing data into multiple completed sub-matrix; thus, the original problem is transformed into a series of related multi-source survival analysis problems. To deal with these...
Source: Neurocomputing - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 24 August 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Sébastien Marx, Thomas Dal Maso, Jia-Wei Chen, Marina Bury, Johan Wouters, Carine Michiels, Benjamin Le CalvéAbstractThe majority of cancer-associated deaths are related to secondary tumor formation. This multistep process involves the migration of cancer cells to anatomically distant organs. Metastasis formation relies on cancer cell dissemination and survival in the circulatory system, as well as adaptation to the new tissue notably through genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. A large number of proteins are clear...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 August 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Ahmad Khurshid, Ju Lee Eun, Shaikh Sibhghatulla, Kumar Anuj, Madhusudana Rao Kummara, Park So-Yong, O Jin Jun, Soo Han Sung, Choi InhoAbstractIntegrins are the main cell surface receptors and execute multifaceted functions such as the bidirectional transmission of signals (i.e., inside-out and outside-in) and provide communication between cells and their microenvironments. Integrins are the key regulators of critical biological functions and contribute significantly to the promotion of cancer at almost every stage of disease progr...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 August 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Crescenzo D’Alterio, Stefania Scala, Gabriella Sozzi, Luca Roz, Giulia BertoliniAbstractSeveral lines of compelling pre-clinical evidence identify chemotherapy as a potentially double-edged sword: therapeutic efficacy on the primary tumor may in fact be counterbalanced by the induction of tumor/host reactive responses supportive for survival and dissemination of cancer cell subpopulations. This paradoxical effect of chemotherapy can affect different districts such as the primary tumor, the circulation and distant organs by s...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, although human studies are needed, NPs obtained from food-derived flavonoids have promising anticancer effects in vivo.
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 August 2019Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and MedicineAuthor(s): Maha Hafsi, Sandra Preveral, Christopher Hoog, Joel Hérault, Géraldine Adryanczyk Perrier, Christopher T Lefèvre, Hervé Michel, David Pignol, Jérôme Doyen, Thierry Pourcher, Olivier Humbert, Juliette Thariat, Béatrice CambienAbstractAlthough chemically synthesized ferro/ferrimagnetic nanoparticles have attracted great attention in cancer theranostics, they lack radio-enhancement efficacy due to low targeting and internalization ability. Herein, we investigated...
Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
In this study, human serum albumin (HSA) complexed with 5BMF (5BMF@HSA) has been developed to further improve its solubility (from 1.61 to 5.41 mg/mL), and the fluorescent intensity of 5BMF@HSA was improved over 2 times. Nearly 10-fold 5BMF was released from 5BMF@HSA complex in acidic condition when compared with neutral/basic environment. Intracellular distribution of 5BMF was altered by HSA as its signals were observed in lysosomes where free 5BMF barely localized. Both 5BMF@HSA and 5BMF showed selective toxicity toward tumor cells in μM and nM range and effectively inhibited tumor growth in mice model. In summar...
Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: December 2019Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C, Volume 105Author(s): Mohamed Gaber, Mark Hany, Sarah Mokhtar, Maged W. Helmy, Kadria A. Elkodairy, Ahmed O. ElzoghbyAbstractMulti-modality strategies of albumin-mediated drug accumulation in tumor, boronate-based active tumor targeting and synergistic cancer therapy were combined together for effective treatment of breast cancer. Herein we report the development of albumin-shell oily-core nanocapsules (NCs), loaded with novel combination of hydrophobic drugs, exemestane (EXE) and hesperetin (HES), for targeted breast cancer therapy. This protein-l...
Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: December 2019Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C, Volume 105Author(s): Sushma Havanur, Inayat Batish, Sri Pragnya Cheruku, Karthik Gourishetti, JagadeeshBabu P.E., Nitesh KumarAbstractCancer has emanated as a daunting menace to human-kind even though medicine, science, and technology has reached its zenith. Subsequent scarcity in the revelation of new drugs, the exigency of salvaging formerly discovered toxic drugs such as doxorubicin has emerged. The invention of drug carrier has made drug delivery imminent which is ascribable to its characteristic traits of specific targeting, effective respons...
Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 August 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Roger D. Madison, Grant A. RobinsonAbstractExtracellular vesicles are lipid bilayer-enclosed extracellular structures. Although the term extracellular vesicles is quite inclusive, it generally refers to exosomes (
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
In this study, a library of P450BM3 mutants was produced using site-directed mutagenesis and the enzymes screened for metabolism of the opium poppy alkaloid noscapine, a drug with anticancer activity. Of the 18 enzyme mutants screened, 12 showed an ability to metabolise noscapine that was not present in the wild-type enzyme. Five noscapine metabolites were detected by LC-MS/MS, with the major metabolite for all mutants being N-demethylated noscapine. The highest observed regioselectivity for N-demethylation was 88%. Two hydroxylated metabolites, a catechol and two C-C cleavage products were also detected. P450-mediated pro...
Source: Biotechnology Reports - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
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