Susceptibility of Enterovirus-D68 to RNAi-mediated antiviral knockdown

Publication date: Available online 20 July 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Nicholas Klaiber, Michael A. McVoy, Wei ZhaoAbstractEnterovirus D68 (EV-D68) represents an emerging pathogen which has demonstrated a capacity for causing epidemic illness in pediatric and immunocompromised patients. With no effective antiviral treatment available, therapeutic interventions are currently limited to supportive care. Utilizing available genomic sequences from the 2014 B3 Epidemic EV-D68 clade and the 1962 Fermon EV-D68 strains, we performed in silico comparative genomic analysis, identifying several islands of phylogenetic conservation within the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene. The effects of transfecting short-interfering double-stranded RNA (siRNA) molecules targeting these conserved sequences were tested in vitro using a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell-based model of EV-D68 infection. Two siRNA sequences demonstrated reproducible ability to abrogate EV-D68-mediated cytopathic effect in vitro. These siRNA sequences were also able to decrease EV-D68 genome replication, VP-2 capsid protein expression, and infectious particle production in vitro. EV-D68 knockdown was sequence-specific and not observed in cells treated with a negative control siRNA lacking sequence homology to the viral genome. The regions targeted by these siRNA's are located in highly conserved regions of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene. The most potent siRNA targeted a sequence found in subsequent en...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 19 August 2019Source: The Lancet HIVAuthor(s): Tahvi D Frank, Austin Carter, Deepa Jahagirdar, Molly H Biehl, Dirk Douwes-Schultz, Samantha Leigh Larson, Megha Arora, Laura Dwyer-Lindgren, Krista M Steuben, Hedayat Abbastabar, Laith Jamal Abu-Raddad, Direslgne Misker Abyu, Maryam Adabi, Oladimeji M Adebayo, Victor Adekanmbi, Olatunji O Adetokunboh, Alireza Ahmadi, Keivan Ahmadi, Elham Ahmadian, Ehsan AhmadpourSummaryBackgroundUnderstanding the patterns of HIV/AIDS epidemics is crucial to tracking and monitoring the progress of prevention and control efforts in countries. We provide a comp...
Source: The Lancet HIV - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Endo International Plc and Allergan Plc have agreed to pay $15 million to avoid going to trial in October in a landmark case by two Ohio counties accusing various drug manufacturers and distributors of fueling the U.S. opioid epidemic.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 19 August 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Kabita Pandey, Shuhong Zhong, Diego G. Diel, Yixuan Hou, Qiuhong Wang, Eric Nelson, Xiuqing WangAbstractPorcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the Coronaviridae. PEDV causes severe diarrhoea and dehydration in nursing piglets, which leads to significant economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Stress granules (SGs) are sites of mRNA storage that are formed under various stress conditions including viral infections. Increasing evidence suggests that SGs function i...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 August 2019Source: Journal of Theoretical BiologyAuthor(s): Yuting Wei, Yaosen Lin, Bin WuAbstractVaccination is crucial for the control of epidemics. Yet it is a social dilemma since non-vaccinators benefit from the herd immunity created by the vaccinators. Thus the optimum vaccination level is not reached via voluntary vaccination at times. Social networks have been shown to dramatically alter the vaccination behavior. The underlying network, however, is often assumed to be static, neglecting the dynamical nature of social networks. We address how the dynamics of networks have an imp...
Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 August 2019Source: EpidemicsAuthor(s): Michael A. Irvine, Travis Salway, Troy Grennan, Jason Wong, Mark Gilbert, Daniel CoombsAbstractPre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has the potential to greatly reduce transmission of HIV. However, significant questions remain around how behavioural factors may influence its impact within target populations. We used a 2014 sexual behaviour survey to modify and recalibrate a mathematical model of HIV infection dynamics within the population of gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) in the Greater Vancouver area of British Columbia, Ca...
Source: Epidemics - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
ConclusionsNonmedical use of prescription opioids is associated with many health risk behaviors. Opportunities to reduce nonmedical use of prescription opioids include screening pediatric patients for opioid use disorder, improved prescribing practices, and, from a primary prevention perspective, integrated evidence-based health education programs in schools.
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Authors: Zhong J, Xia Y, Hua L, Liu X, Xiao M, Xu T, Zhu B, Cao H Abstract Enterovirus 71 (EV71) which commonly caused the hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) has become one of public health challenges worldwide. However, no effective vaccines or drugs for this disease has been developed. Thus, there is an urgent need to find a new strategy for treating the EV71 infection. Oseltamivir (OT) is an effective antiviral agent, but continuous use of oseltamivir leads to a diminished therapeutic effect in the clinic. In order to improve the antiviral activity of oseltamivir, oseltamivir was loaded onto surfaces of selenium nan...
Source: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Tags: Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol Source Type: research
Conclusion:   Quality of life was found to be better among PD pediatric patients in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PMID: 31423523 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Saudi Medical Journal - Category: Middle East Health Tags: Saudi Med J Source Type: research
We examined differences between sexual minority individuals and heterosexuals in anticipated HIV stigma, HIV infection-control beliefs and HIV status avoidance, in a sample of 232 at-risk Washington D.C. residents. When controlling for race, gender, and HIV risk level, sexual minorities had lower HIV status avoidance, lower anticipated HIV stigma, and higher HIV infection-control beliefs. This research informs our understanding of differences in HIV-related cognitions among sexual minority and heterosexual people who are equally at-risk for HIV. Targeted interventions aimed at improving HIV-related cognitions among heteros...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
Abstract The organization of estrogenic signaling in the CNS is exceedingly complex. It is comprised of peripherally and centrally synthesized estrogens, and a plethora of types of estrogen receptor that can localize to both the nucleus and the plasma membrane. Moreover, CNS estrogen receptors can exist independent of aromatase (aka estrogen synthase) as well as oligomerize with it, along with a host of other membrane signaling proteins. This ability of CNS estrogen receptors to either to physically pair or exist separately enables locally produced estrogens to act on multiple spatial levels, with a high degree of...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research
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