Overexpression of TG2 enhances the differentiation of ectomesenchymal stem cells into neuron ‑like cells and promotes functional recovery in adult rats following spinal cord injury.

Overexpression of TG2 enhances the differentiation of ectomesenchymal stem cells into neuron‑like cells and promotes functional recovery in adult rats following spinal cord injury. Mol Med Rep. 2019 Jul 15;: Authors: Shi W, Que Y, Lv D, Bi S, Xu Z, Wang D, Zhang Z Abstract Ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs) represent a type of adult stem cells derived from the cranial neural crest. These cells are capable of self‑renewal and have the potential for multidirectional differentiation. Tissue transglutaminase type 2 (TG2) is a ubiquitously expressed member of the transglutaminase family of Ca2+‑dependent crosslinking enzymes. However, the effect of TG2 on neural differentiation and proliferation of EMSCs remains unknown. To determine whether TG2 improves EMSC proliferation and neurogenesis, a stable TG2‑overexpressing EMSC cell line (TG2‑EMSCs) was established by using an adenovirus system. Immunofluorescence staining and western blot analyses demonstrated that TG2 overexpression had beneficial effects on the rate of EMSC neurogenesis, and that the proliferative capacity of TG2‑EMSCs was higher than that of controls. Furthermore, the results of western blotting revealed that extracellular matrix (ECM) and neurotrophic factors were upregulated during the differentiation of TG2‑EMSCs. Notably, TG2‑EMSC transplantation in an animal model of spinal cord injury (SCI), TG2‑EMSCs differentiated into neuron‑like cells and enhanced the repair of SCI...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research

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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
This study further evaluated the potential role of miR-139-5p in the neural cell apoptosis after SCI in rats. A rat SCI model was successfully established and miR-139-5p expression level in SCI rats was down-regulated compared to the sham group (sham operation group) determined by qRT-PCR. MiR-139-5p overexpression via administration with miR-139-5p agomir improved locomotor functional recovery, attenuated allodynia and hyperalgesia and alleviated neural cell apoptosis in SCI rats. In addition, TRAF3 (TNF receptor-associated factor 3 ) was identified to be a target of miR-139-5p by searching the proposed target genes in Ta...
Source: Acta Biochim Pol - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Acta Biochim Pol Source Type: research
This study is to investigate the effects of nuclear heme oxidase-1 (HO-1) on the acute spinal cord injury and the related mechanisms. The rat model of the SCI was established. On day 7, before model establishment, the adenovirus vector carrying nuclear HO-1 (Ad-GFP-HO-1CΔ23) was injected into the animals into the tenth thoracic spine (T10) segment by the intrathecal injection. Starting from after the model establishment to day 28, the recovery of motor function was assessed by the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) scoring method. Immunofluorescence was performed to detect the expression patterns of nuclear and cytoplasmi...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
In this study, we found that the expression and distribution of HAX-1 in neurons increased 1 day after SCI. PC12 cells overexpressing HAX-1 showed decreased apoptosis and PC12 cells are more likely to undergo apoptosis after down-regulating HAX-1, which was confirmed via TUNEL experiments. We found GRP94 showed the same trend as HAX-1 in expression and interacted with HAX-1 and IRE-1 in both spinal cord tissue and PC12 cells, and this interaction seems to be enhanced after SCI. When the expression of HAX-1 was up-regulated, GRP94 also increased, but IRE-1 did not change at all. Further studies showed that overexpressi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
In conclusion, our results suggest a previously unknown mechanism whereby the canonical NF-κB cascade and a mitochondrial fission pathway interdependently regulate endothelial inflammation. Lin28 as a Target for Nerve Regeneration https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2020/05/lin28-as-a-target-for-nerve-regeneration/ Researchers here show that the gene Lin28 regulates axon regrowth. In mice, raised levels of Lin28 produce greater regeneration of nerve injuries. Past research has investigated Lin28 from the standpoint of producing a more general improvement in regenerative capacity. It improves mitoch...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
AbstractSOCS3, a feedback inhibitor of the JAK/STAT signal pathway, negatively regulates axonal regrowth and inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we demonstrated a distinct role of SOCS3 in the injured spinal cord of the gecko following tail amputation. Severing the gecko spinal cord did not evoke an inflammatory cascade except for an injury-stimulated elevation of the granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interferon gamma (IFN- γ) cytokines. Simultaneously, the expression of SOCS3 was upregulated in microglia, and unexpectedly not in neurons. Enforced expression of SOCS3 wa...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Abstract Parthanatos is a form of regulated cell death (RCD) that is closely linked to DNA damage, which is a common consequence of oxidative stress due to central nervous trauma, such as spinal cord injury (SCI). The mechanism by which apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) mediates DNA strand breaks in parthanatos was not clear until the discovery of the nuclease function of MIF. A previous study suggested that observed results may not be reliable if the oxidative stress induced in cells observed under experimental pathological conditions does not accurately replicate the specific pathologies being studied. According t...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research
This study mainly explored the mechanism of TRPC5 gene in the treatment of spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury from the perspective of angiogenesis. Western blot, immunohistochemistry, hematoxylin and eosin, ELISA, and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) were used to detect the expression levels of related angiogenic proteins such as von Willebrend factor (vWF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD31, and HIF-1α. The results showed that compared with the IR group, the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores of IR + adeno-associated virus (AAV) + TRPC5 group were higher with significant difference. And compar...
Source: NeuroReport - Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research
Abstract The incidence of spinal cord injury (SCI) continues to increase; however, the involved mechanisms remain unclear. Anaphase promoting complex (APC) and its regulatory subunit Cdh1 play important roles in the growth, development, and repair of the central nervous system (CNS). Cdh1 is involved in the pathophysiological processes of neuronal apoptosis and astrocyte-reactive proliferation after ischemic brain injury, whereas the role played by APC-Cdh1 in the proliferation and activation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) after SCI remains unresolved. Using primary cultures of spinal oligodendrocyte pr...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Adenovirus vector‑mediated in vivo gene transfer of nuclear factor erythroid‑2p45‑related factor 2 promotes functional recovery following spinal cord contusion. Mol Med Rep. 2019 Sep 16;: Authors: Zhu FC, Jiang DM, Zhang MH, Zhao B, He C, Yang J Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate whether nuclear factor erythroid 2p45‑related factor 2 (Nrf2) overexpression by gene transfer may protect neurons/glial cells and the association between neurons/glial cells and axons in spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present study, Nrf2 recombinant adenovirus (Ad) vectors were co...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
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