Standardized measurement of circulating vitamin D 25(OH)D and its putative role as a serum biomarker in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease

Publication date: Available online 19 July 2019Source: Clinica Chimica ActaAuthor(s): Giulia Bivona, Bruna Lo Sasso, Giorgia Iacolino, Caterina Maria Gambino, Concetta Scazzone, Luisa Agnello, Marcello CiaccioAbstractThe current review provides an overview on the development of 25(OH)D measurement standardization tools over the last three decades and clarifies whether there is a role as a serum biomarker for vitamin D in neurological diseases. In the past, a lack of internationally recognized 25(OH)D reference measurement procedures and reference standard materials led to unstandardized serum total 25(OH)D results among research and clinical care laboratories. The vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) has been introduced in 2010 to address this problem, however, vitamin D External Quality Assessment Scheme (DEQAS) reports still show substantial sample- to- sample variability. Further, immunoassays, which are mainly used in clinical care laboratories, display analytical issues, including matrix-effects interferences, which cannot be overcome by the standardization process. Hence, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) methods should be used to measure 25(OH)D. Low vitamin D serum levels have been found in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, suggesting a role for vitamin D as a serum biomarker in these diseases. However, few studies reported 25(OH)D standardized results, thus, no clear evidence on the potential role of 25(OH)D...
Source: Clinica Chimica Acta - Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

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Authors: Ding M, Chen Y, Luan H, Zhang X, Zhao Z, Wu Y Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects people in all demographics, since it is associated with a variety of chronic degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. In TBI, the central nervous system elicits an immune response involving various immune cells that is necessary for healing and defending the body against pathogens, but can also cause secondary damage to the brain if the response is prolonged. In our clinical practice, it has been identified that administration of dexmedetomidine was associated with reduced production of in...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
ConclusionsT. tuberosum has been tested for various biological activities and the extracts (tubers in particular) demonstrated a promising potential as an antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and inhibitors of benign prostatic hyperplasia. A lack of alignment between the ethno-medicinal uses and existing biological screenings was observed, indicating the need to explore its potential for the treatment against respiratory affections, urinary affections and blood diseases. Likewise, it is necessary to analyse deeply the relationship that exists between the different tuber colours of T. tuberosum and its use for the ...
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionThis study rendered a preliminary overview of anti-cholinesterase activity from diverse Malaysian botanical families in which provided the medical relevance toward these native plant species, especially ones with limited ethnobotanical record or practice.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Bing Wang As our global population ages, the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases is critical to our society. In recent years, researchers have begun to study the role of biologically active chemicals from plants and herbs to gain new inspiration and develop new therapeutic drugs. Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.) is a famous Chinese herbal medicine with a variety of pharmacological activities. It has been used to treat various diseases since ancient times. Extensive research over the years has shown that ginseng has potential as a neuroprotective drug, and its neuroprotective effects can be used to treat and preven...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Role of PGC-1α in Mitochondrial Quality Control in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Neurochem Res. 2019 Aug 13;: Authors: Zhang Q, Lei YH, Zhou JP, Hou YY, Wan Z, Wang HL, Meng H Abstract As one of the major cell organelles responsible for ATP production, it is important that neurons maintain mitochondria with structural and functional integrity; this is especially true for neurons with high metabolic requirements. When mitochondrial damage occurs, mitochondria are able to maintain a steady state of functioning through molecular and organellar quality control, thus ensuring neuronal function. And whe...
Source: Neurochemical Research - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Zhou Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), mainly secreted by the liver and adipocytes, is a transporter of vitamin A. RBP4 has been shown to be involved in several pathophysiological processes, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk. Reports have indicated the high expression levels of RBP4 in cystic follicles. However, the role of RBP4 in mammalian follicular granulosa cells (GCs) remains largely unknown. To illustrate the molecular pathways associated with the effects of RBP4 on GCs, we used high-throughput sequencing to detect differential gene expression in GCs overexpressing RBP4. A total of 1...
Source: Genes - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In conclusion, the gradual functional decline of peripheral organs might be a consequence of the aging brain or kidneys either through aging of neurons that influence these organs or through failure of the kidneys to eliminate age-associated molecules that occur due to environmental and genetic causes. Additionally, the age-dependent changes in RTE expression may be related to changes in function rather than directly associated with the aging process. The upregulation of RTEs in the mouse brain and kidneys might positively enhance the clearance of P16INK4a-positive cells. Link: https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/2818415
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
go AC Abstract A failure in redox homeostasis is a common hallmark of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease (PD), two age-dependent neurodegenerative disorders (NDD), causing increased oxidative stress, oxidized/damaged biomolecules, altered neuronal function and consequent cell death. Activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a redox-regulated transcription factor, results in upregulation of cytoprotective and antioxidant enzymes/proteins, protecting against oxidative stress. Nrf2 regulation is achieved by various proteins and pathways, at both cytoplasmatic and nuclear level; h...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research
Authors: Chang EA, Jin SW, Nam MH, Kim SD Abstract The generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from somatic cells using gene transfer opens new areas for precision medicine with personalized cell therapy and encourages the discovery of essential platforms for targeted drug development. iPSCs retain the genome of the donor, may regenerate indefinitely, and undergo differentiation into virtually any cell type of interest using a range of published protocols. There has been enormous interest among researchers regarding the application of iPSC technology to regenerative medicine and human disease mod...
Source: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: J Korean Neurosurg Soc Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 September 2019Source: Life Sciences, Volume 233Author(s): Nandini H S, Yam Nath Paudel, Krishna K LAbstractEpilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate and aggravate epileptic seizures affecting around 1% of global population making it a serious health concern. Despite the recent advances in epilepsy research, no disease-modifying treatment able to terminate epileptogenesis have been reported yet reflecting the complexity in understanding the disease pathogenesis. To overcome the current treatment gap against epilepsy, one effective approach is to explore ...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
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