Estimating the cost of illness and burden of disease associated with the 2014 –2015 chikungunya outbreak in the U.S. Virgin Islands

In this study, we estimate the direct medical costs, cost of lost wages due to absenteeism, and years lived with disability (YLD) associated with the 2014–2015 CHIKV outbreak in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). For this analysis, we used surveillance data from the USVI Department of Health, medical cost data from three public hospitals in USVI, and data from two studies of laboratory-positive cases up to 12 months post illness. On average, employed case-patients missed 9 days of work in the 12 months following their disease onset, which resulted in an estimated cost of $15.5 million. Estimated direct healthcare costs were $2.9 million for the first 2 months and $0.6 million for 3–12 months following the outbreak. The total estimated cost associated with the outbreak ranged from $14.8 to $33.4 million (approximately 1% of gross domestic product), depending on the proportion of the population infected with symptomatic disease, degree of underreporting, and proportion of cases who were e mployed. The estimated YLDs associated with long-term sequelae from the CHIKV outbreak in the USVI ranged from 599–1,322. These findings highlight the significant economic burden of the recent CHIKV outbreak in the USVI and will aid policy-makers in making informed decisions about prevention and c ontrol measures for inevitable, future CHIKV outbreaks.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

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Conclusion: Our results are similar to those reported from the state of Veracruz, Mexico, in which out of 33 samples of urine of patients with GBS two had a positive RT-PCR for ZIKV. Simultaneous processing of serum, CSF, urine, and saliva by RT-PCR may increase the success of diagnosis of GBS associated to ZIKV. Introduction In April 2016, a report of Epidemiological Surveillance for Zika virus (ZIKV) disease in Mexico reported 93 autochthonous laboratory-confirmed cases, collected between November 2015 and February 2016, and distributed amongst eight states of the country (1). In these patients, clinical manifest...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusions Apart West Nile virus (78), thousands of congenital microcephaly cases, fetal brain tissue damage and neurological syndromes have been associated with ZIKV infection. Unfortunately, the epidemics of this mosquito born, and a relative stable virus is on a rise. Although congenital microcephaly is a rare disorder however, due to lack of standardized diagnostic test facilities, the incidence in the geographically widespread ZIKV epidemic regions is higher. Animals studies showed that ZIKV is a neurotropic virus. It directly targets the developing embryonic brain cells by inducing apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusions/SignificancePublished cohorts with data on the risk to the fetus and/or newborn from maternal CHIKV-infections during gestation were sparse compared to the number of recently reported CHIKV-infection outbreaks worldwide; however perinatal infections do occur, at high rates during intrapartum period, and can be related to neonatal death and long-term disabilities.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
DiscussionEconomic evaluation of the first-ever dengue vaccine is ongoing. However, even under very optimistic assumptions about a highly targeted and low cost immunization strategy, our results suggest that sustained vector control will continue to play an important role in mitigating the impact of environmental change and urbanization on human health. If additional benefits for the control of otherAedes borne diseases, such as Chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika fever are taken into account, the investment case is even stronger. High-burden endemic countries should proceed to map populations to be covered by sustained vector control.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
In this study we explore the potential for autochthonous, but not necessarily sustained, transmission of CHIKV in Canada. We used a stochastic mathematical model parameterized for Ae. albopictus under climatic conditions in the warmest months of the year in locations across Canada. We then combined the climatic suitability for CHIKV transmission potential in the warmest months of the year (condition C4) with climatic suitability indicators for the endemic presence of Ae. albopictus (condition C3) to produce risk maps identifying areas in Canada most suitable for autochthonous CHIKV transmission under recent and projected c...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Purpose of review: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus. Fever, rash and severe arthralgia are the hallmarks of chikungunya fever (CHIKF), the disease caused by this virus. The acute course of the disease usually lasts few weeks to months. Chronic, relapsing or persistent arthralgia and arthritis have been described mimicking rheumatoid arthritis (RA), requiring immunosuppressive drugs. The purpose of this review is to characterize both the chronic clinical course of CHIKF-associated arthritis and the immunological pathogenic mechanisms involved. Recent findings: The effect of postepidemic chronic per...
Source: Current Opinion in Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Tags: INFECTIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF AUTOIMMUNITY: Edited by Yehuda Shoenfeld Source Type: research
Zika virus’ status as a global health threat may officially be over, but the disease’s impact is far from contained.  The World Health Organization decided in November to end its designation of Zika virus as a public health emergency, but that doesn’t mean that Zika virus has disappeared, explained Dr. Carlos Pardo-Villamizar, a clinical neurologist with an expertise in infectious disorders at Johns Hopkins Medicine. Alongside pressing concerns about how to prevent a resurgence of the disease, health care systems in Brazil and other countries that saw births of babies infected with the disease in ute...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news
A comprehensive analysis and immunobiology of autoimmune neurological syndromes during the Zika virus outbreak in Cúcuta, Colombia. J Autoimmun. 2017 Jan 03;: Authors: Anaya JM, Rodríguez Y, Monsalve DM, Vega D, Ojeda E, González-Bravo D, Rodríguez-Jiménez M, Pinto-Díaz CA, Chaparro P, Gunturiz ML, Ansari AA, Gershwin ME, Molano-González N, Ramírez-Santana C, Acosta-Ampudia Y Abstract We have focused on the epidemiology and immunobiology of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and factors associated with the development of Guillain-Barré syndrome (...
Source: Journal of Autoimmunity - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Autoimmun Source Type: research
Authors: Requena D, Segovia-Juárez JL Abstract Chikungunya fever seriously affects peoples' health and causes chronic joint pain and even disability. Chikungunya is transmitted by the bite of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Outbreaks have been reported in throughout the world, including Latin America. Mathematical modeling studies of these outbreaks have calculated the values of various​ epidemiological parameters. Based on them, a mathematical model was prepared to simulate a chikungunya outbreak in a local population, which was transmitted from an neighboring infected population. A sensitivity and un...
Source: Revista Peruana de Medicina de Experimental y Salud Publica - Category: Global & Universal Tags: Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica Source Type: research
The mosquito-borne Zika virus could hit Hawaii especially hard if it arrives in the Aloha State, according to an expert from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. While a widespread outbreak of Zika in the Hawaiian islands remains unlikely at the moment, the state is at higher risk because of its tropical climate and large number of foreign travelers. And many experts are voicing serious concerns about the state's ability to handle such an event, should it occur. Hawaii is already battling its largest outbreak of dengue fever since the 1940s, a disease that is carried by the sam...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news
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