Stem cells in tissues, organoids, and cancers.

Stem cells in tissues, organoids, and cancers. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2019 Jul 17;: Authors: Wang X Abstract Stem cells give rise to all cells and build the tissue structures in our body, and heterogeneity and plasticity are the hallmarks of stem cells. Epigenetic modification, which is associated with niche signals, determines stem cell differentiation and somatic cell reprogramming. Stem cells play a critical role in the development of tumors and are capable of generating 3D organoids. Understanding the properties of stem cells will improve our capacity to maintain tissue homeostasis. Dissecting epigenetic regulation could be helpful for achieving efficient cell reprograming and for developing new drugs for cancer treatment. Stem cell-derived organoids open up new avenues for modeling human diseases and for regenerative medicine. Nevertheless, in addition to the achievements in stem cell research, many challenges still need to be overcome for stem cells to have versatile application in clinics. PMID: 31317205 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

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Conditions:   Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML);   Cancer Interventions:   Drug: Venetoclax;   Drug: Azacitidine;   Other: Best Supportive Care (BSC) Sponsor:   AbbVie Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that exosomes derived from GEM-resistant pancreatic cancer stem cells mediate the horizontal transfer of drug-resistant traits to GEM-sensitive pancreatic cancer cells by delivering miR-210.
Source: Cellular Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this report, we demonstrate potent anti‐myeloma effects of the TOPK inhibitor OTS514 for the fir st time. OTS514 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis at nanomolar concentrations in a series of human myeloma cell lines (HMCL) and prevents outgrowth of a putative CD138+ stem cell population from MM patient ‐derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In bone marrow cells from MM patients, OTS514 treatment exhibited preferential killing of the malignant CD138+ plasma cells compared with the CD138− compartment. In an aggressive mouse xenograft model, OTS964 given orally at 100  mg/kg 5 days per week w...
Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
Ruiz Juan Antonio Marchal María Isabel Núñez Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Radiotherapy (RT) is one of the mainstay treatments for cancer but in some cases is not effective. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumor can be responsible for recurrence and metastasis after RT. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), regulated mainly by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), may also contribute to tumor development by modifying its activity after RT. The aim of this work was to study the effects of RT on the expression of MMPs, TIMPs and HDACs ...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Source: Cancer Management and Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Cancer Management and Research Source Type: research
Series Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensA greater understanding of the hypersensitivity and curability of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) has the potential to inform strategies to sensitize other solid tumors to conventional chemotherapies. More than 80% of metastatic TGCT patients are cured with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, resistance can occur, which results in poor outcomes. The mechanisms of cisplatin hypersensitivity and resistance in these tumors and embryonal carcinoma (EC), the stem cells of TGCTs, remain largely undefined. To study the mechanisms of cisp...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2019Source: Stem Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Xiajun Li, Max Jiahua Li, Yang Yang, Yun BaiAbstractPluripotent stem cells are considered to be the ideal candidates for cell-based therapies in humans. In this regard, both nuclear transfer embryonic stem (ntES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are particularly advantageous because patient-specific autologous ntES and iPS cells can avoid immunorejection and other side effects that may be present in the allogenic pluripotent stem cells derived from unrelated sources. However, they have been found to contain deleterious gene...
Source: Stem Cell Research - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
Abstract B-cell follicle represents a functionally dynamic microstructure within second lymphoid tissues, predominantly consisting of B cells, follicular T cells and DCs. Through intimate interactions with cognate B cells, follicular helper T cells (Tfh) initiate and facilitate germinal center (GC) reactions by providing signals required for producing high-affinity antibodies, as well as for the generation of long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells. Concomitantly, germinal center reaction needs to be fine controlled to avoid autoimmunity or B-cell malignancies. Among immune cells residing in ...
Source: Advances in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Adv Immunol Source Type: research
In conclusion, abrogation of PI3K/AKT signaling triggered by miR‑186‑5p/CXCL13 may contribute to ON pathogenesis. These results highlight the possible clinical value of miR‑186‑5p in treatment for non‑traumatic ON. PMID: 31702033 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 November 2019Source: Journal of BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Fahimeh Mollania, Nasser L. Hadipour, Nasrin MollaniaAbstractPyrimethamine is an effective drug in the cancer cell treatment and is a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor. In this work, the amount of drug loading up on CNT and its cytotoxicity effect upon MCF-7 cell lines was surveyed. The novel applications of some drugs and nanocarriers can induce the differentiation of adipose mesenchymal cells into nerve cells. Hence carbon nanotube-pyrimethamine was used to differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into the neural category, for the fi...
Source: Journal of Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
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