In Vivo Pharmacology Models for Cancer Target Research.
In Vivo Pharmacology Models for Cancer Target Research. Methods Mol Biol. 2019;1953:183-211 Authors: Chen D, An X, Ouyang X, Cai J, Zhou D, Li QX Abstract Experimental animal tumor models have been broadly used to evaluate anticancer drugs in the preclinical setting. They have also been widely applied for drug target discovery and validation, which usually follows four experimental strategies: first, assess the roles of putative drug targets using in vivo tumorigenicity and tumor growth kinetics assays of transplanted tumors, engineered through gain-of-function (GOF) by overexpressing transgene or knock-in (KI) or loss-of-function by gene silencing using knockdown (KD) or knockout (KO) or mutation via mutagenesis procedures; second, similarly genetically engineered mouse models (GEMM), through either germline or somatic cell procedures, are used to test the roles of potential targets in spontaneous tumorigenicity assays; third, patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), which most closely resemble patient genetics and histopathology, are used in tumor inhibition assays for evaluating target-/pathway-specific inhibitors, including large and small molecules, thus assessing the drug target; and fourth, the targets can be assessed in population-based trials, mouse clinical trials (MCT), so that the validation can be generally meaningful as performed in human clinical trials. This chapter outlines the commonly used protocols in cancer drug target research: the first ...
Conclusion Medication administration is an activity of great responsibility for nursing; however, in order to achieve a decrease in medication errors, prevention strategies are necessary for the whole health team. Implications for Practice Practice improvements are needed including establishing institutional drug administration protocols and keeping them updated, using a computerized prescription system, and promoting patient safety with staff.
This study highlights poor outcomes for patients with BPDCN in the modern era and the need for new treatments. Outcomes from ongoing clinical trials for BPDCN can be evaluated relative to this contemporary cohort.
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: The Journal of Molecular DiagnosticsAuthor(s): Amy Oreskovic, Norman D. Brault, Nuttada Panpradist, James J. Lai, Barry R. LutzUrine cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a valuable noninvasive biomarker for detecting cancer mutation, diagnosing infectious disease (eg, tuberculosis), monitoring organ transplantation, and prenatal screening. Conventional silica DNA extraction does not efficiently capture urine cfDNA, which is dilute (ng/mL) and highly fragmented (30 to 100 nt). The clinical sensitivity of urine cfDNA detection increases with decreasing target length, motivating us...
Background: Skin cancers are the most common cancers in patients who have received a solid organ transplant. The risk of developing skin cancer is significantly increased in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) compared with the general population, likely due to their highly immunosuppressive drug regimens. Because of this increase in skin cancer risk, it is extremely important for SOTRs to receive regular and thorough dermatologic monitoring
Introduction: Topical 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) under zinc oxide occlusion has been reported to be effective in reducing actinic damage and as an adjuvant to surgery for squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) on diffusely photodamaged skin. It has also been shown to increase patient satisfaction as well as compliance and is tolerable without major side effects. Organ transplant patients are at an increased risk of developing skin cancer due to immunosuppressive medications. 5-FU is frequently prescribed as an at-home field treatment for diffuse actinic keratoses (AKs).
Background: Organ transplant patients show a higher incidence of actinic keratosis (AK) and nonmelanoma skin cancer than general population. Criotherapy and daylight-photodynamic-therapy with methyl-aminolevuinate (DL-PDT-MAL) can be used to treat AK. 1-5DL-PDT-MAL is usually a therapy of the field cancerization. Criotherapy treats only visible AK. Organ transplat patients usually receive multiple treatments for AK during their life and sometimes are not well tolerated.
Immunological aging is related to the development of cancer, but factors that impact this relationship are only partially understood. Several studies demonstrated that aging correlates with increased peripheral blood T lymphocyte (PBTL) expression of p16INK4a [1,2], a molecular marker associated with cellular senescence and irreversible cell cycle arrest . PBTL p16INK4a levels not only increase with chronological age, but are influenced by physiologic stress caused by smoking, chemotherapy, and physical inactivity .
ConclusionsAbdominal wall defects from resection of cancerous masses of the abdominal wall can be closed with a contralateral rectus abdominis muscle transplant in the absence of mesh.
Urine cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a valuable noninvasive biomarker for detecting cancer mutation, diagnosing infectious disease (eg, tuberculosis), monitoring organ transplantation, and prenatal screening. Conventional silica DNA extraction does not efficiently capture urine cfDNA, which is dilute (ng/mL) and highly fragmented (30 to 100 nt). The clinical sensitivity of urine cfDNA detection increases with decreasing target length, motivating use of sample preparation methods designed for short fragments.
Bioengineers and dentists from the UCLA School of Dentistry have developed a new hydrogel that is more porous and effective in promoting tissue repair and regeneration compared to hydrogels that are currently available. Once injected in a mouse model, the new hydrogel is shown to induce migration of naturally occurring stem cells to better promote bone healing. Current experimental applications using hydrogels and stem cells introduced into the body or expensive biological agents can come with negative side effects.The findings, published online in the journal Nature Communications, suggest that in the near future th...