Frontline Science: Abnormalities in the gut mucosa of non-obese diabetic mice precede the onset of type 1 diabetes.

Frontline Science: Abnormalities in the gut mucosa of non-obese diabetic mice precede the onset of type 1 diabetes. J Leukoc Biol. 2019 Jul 16;: Authors: Miranda MCG, Oliveira RP, Torres L, Aguiar SLF, Pinheiro-Rosa N, Lemos L, Guimarães MA, Reis D, Silveira T, Ferreira Ê, Moreira TG, Cara DC, Maioli TU, Kelsall BL, Carlos D, Faria AMC Abstract Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota have been associated with development of type 1 diabetes (T1D), but little is known about changes in intestinal homeostasis that contribute to disease pathogenesis. Here, we analyzed oral tolerance induction, components of the intestinal barrier, fecal microbiota, and immune cell phenotypes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice during disease progression compared to non-obese diabetes resistant (NOR) mice. NOD mice failed to develop oral tolerance and had defective protective/regulatory mechanisms in the intestinal mucosa, including decreased numbers of goblet cells, diminished mucus production, and lower levels of total and bacteria-bound secretory IgA, as well as an altered IEL profile. These disturbances correlated with bacteria translocation to the pancreatic lymph node possibly contributing to T1D onset. The composition of the fecal microbiota was altered in pre-diabetic NOD mice, and cross-fostering of NOD mice by NOR mothers corrected their defect in mucus production, indicating a role for NOD microbiota in gut barrier dysfunction. NOD...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

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Alessandro Poggi1*, Roberto Benelli2, Roberta Venè1, Delfina Costa1, Nicoletta Ferrari1, Francesca Tosetti1 and Maria Raffaella Zocchi3 1Molecular Oncology and Angiogenesis Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 2Immunology Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 3Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy It is well established that natural killer (NK) cells are involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Indeed, they can recognize molecules induced at the cell surface by stress signals ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion: ROS promote CD8+ T cell activation by facilitating autoantigen cross-presentation by DCs. ROS scavengers could potentially represent an important component of therapies aiming to disrupt autoantigen presentation and activation of CD8+ T cells in individuals at-risk for developing T1D. In Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), pancreatic β cells are attacked by a T cell mediated autoimmune response and lose their ability to produce insulin (1–3). While a number of immune cell subsets are involved throughout the development of T1D, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs) function as primary effectors of β cell damag...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion Taken together, evidence from animal and human studies demonstrates that the brain detects levels of circulating nutrients and hormones and consequently organizes an outward response that contributes to the regulation of whole-body glucose homeostasis. However, there are major knowledge gaps about the exact nature of this response and its relative importance compared to peripheral processes. As we have seen, animal studies have provided an anatomical map of CNS glucose regulation and have identified important neurons and neural circuits involved. Additionally, the CNS sensing of key nutrients and hormones has b...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
CD28 Individual Signaling Up-regulates Human IL-17A Expression by Promoting the Recruitment of RelA/NF-κB and STAT3 Transcription Factors on the Proximal Promoter Martina Kunkl1†, Marta Mastrogiovanni1,2†, Nicla Porciello3, Silvana Caristi1, Emanuele Monteleone4, Stefano Arcieri5 and Loretta Tuosto1* 1Department of Biology and Biotechnology Charles Darwin, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy 2Lymphocyte Cell Biology Unit, INSERM U1221, Department of Immunology, Pasteur Institute, Paris, France 3Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom 4Department of Molecu...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions In conclusion, articles in this Research Topic made a very significant contribution to our understanding of the role played by environmental factors, dysbiotic conditions, and infections in triggering diseases. Since this is a rapidly expanding area of research, many other factors contributing to the onset of these diseases are not covered here. We are confident, however, that further studies will expand the list as well as bring a better understanding of mechanisms involved in the onset of autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. Author Contributions All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and i...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) KLDS1.0318 preserved in our laboratory was orally administered to CTX-treated mice to explore its potential effects to attenuate the toxic effects of CTX-induced by modulating intestinal immune response, promoting intestinal integrity and improving metabolic profile. BALB/c mice were randomly divided into six groups including normal control group (NC; non-CTX with sterile saline), model control group (MC; CTX-treated with sterile saline), CTX-treated with L. plantarum KLDS1.0318 (10 mL/kg) groups with three different doses (KLDS1.0318-L, 5 × 107 CFU/mL; KLDS1.0318...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate whether cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (C3G), or peptides with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, alone or in combination, alter glucose regulation in human primary myotubes derived from obese and obese T2DM participants. In the obese group, both low and high concentration of peptides and the combination of these peptides with high C3G concentration significantly enhanced glucose uptake in the presence or absence of insulin, and high concentration of peptide alone and its combination with low C3G down-regulated the mRNA expression of angiotensin II receptor, type 1 (AGTR...
Source: Journal of Functional Foods - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 October 2018Source: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 474Author(s): Zaida Moreno-Villegas, Antonio Martín-Duce, César Aparicio, Sergio Portal-Núñez, Raúl Sanz, Samuel A. Mantey, Robert T. Jensen, Oscar Lorenzo, Jesús Egido, Nieves GonzálezAbstractBRS-3 has an important role in glucose homeostasis. Its expression was reduced in skeletal muscle from obese and/or diabetic patients, and BRS-3 KO-mice developed obesity. In this work, focused on rat/human adipose tissue, BRS-3 gene-expression was lower than normal-levels in hyperlipidemic, type-2-di...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology Author(s): Zaida Moreno-Villegas, Antonio Martín-Duce, César Aparicio, Sergio Portal-Núñez, Raúl Sanz, Samuel A. Mantey, Robert T. Jensen, Oscar Lorenzo, Jesús Egido, Nieves González BRS-3 has an important role in glucose homeostasis. Its expression was reduced in skeletal muscle from obese and/or diabetic patients, and BRS-3 KO-mice developed obesity. In this work, focused on rat/human adipose tissue, BRS-3 gene-expression was lower than normal-levels in hyperlipidemic, type-2-di...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Peroral arsenic has little effect on local airway immune responses to bacteria but compromises respiratory epithelial barrier integrity, increasing systemic translocation of inhaled pathogens and small molecules. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1878 Received: 09 March 2017 Revised: 14 August 2017 Accepted: 16 August 2017 Published: 28 September 2017 Address correspondence to M.B. Fessler, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 T.W. Alexander Dr., P.O. Box 12233, Maildrop D2-01, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 USA. Telephone: (919) 541-3701. Email: fesslerm@niehs.nih.gov *Current address: UN...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
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