Cutting Edge: Bacillus Calmette-Gu érin-Induced T Cells Shape Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection before Reducing the Bacterial Burden.

In this study, we found that murine BCG immunization promotes a dramatic shift in infected cell types. Although alveolar macrophages are the major infected cell for the first 2 weeks in unimmunized animals, BCG promotes the accelerated recruitment and infection of lung-infiltrating phagocytes. Interestingly, this shift is dependent on CD4 T cells, yet does not require intrinsic recognition of Ag presented by infected alveolar macrophages. M. tuberculosis-specific T cells are first activated in lung regions devoid of infected cells, and these events precede vaccine-induced reduction of the bacterial burden, which occurs only after the colocalization of T cells and infected cells. Understanding how BCG alters early immune responses to M. tuberculosis provides new avenues to improve upon the immunity it confers. PMID: 31308091 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Immunol Source Type: research

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The administration of a high fat content diet is an accelerating factor for metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance, and early type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to assess the impact of a high fat diet on tuberculosis progression and microbiota composition in an experimental animal model using a C3HeB/FeJ mouse strain submitted to single or multiple consecutive aerosol infections. These models allowed us to study the protection induced by Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination as well as by the natural immunity induced by chemotherapy after a low dose Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Our results show ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of two attenuated vaccines, BCG and MTBVAC, after each was given to 17 goats (2  months old) and then exposed for 9 months to goats infected withM. caprae. In general, MTBVAC-vaccinated goats showed higher interferon-gamma release than BCG vaccinated goats in response to bovine protein purified derivative and ESAT-6/CFP-10 antigens and the response was significantly higher than that observed in the control group until challenge. All animals showed lesions consistent with TB at the end of the study. Goats that received either vaccine showed significantly ...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Globally, tuberculosis (TB) has reemerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality, despite the use of the M. bovis BCG vaccine and intensive attempts to improve upon BCG or develop new vaccines. Two lacunae in our understanding of the M. tuberculosis (M. tb)-host pathogenesis have mitigated the vaccine efforts; the bacterial-host interaction that enables successful establishment of primary infection and the correlates of protection against TB. The vast majority of vaccine efforts are based on the premise that cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is the predominating mode of protection against TB. However, studies in animal mod...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Laylaa Ramos, Andres Obregon-Henao, Marcela Henao-Tamayo, Richard Bowen, Angelo Izzo, Joan K. Lunney, Mercedes Gonzalez-JuarreroAbstractMany vaccines against childhood diseases are administered early after birth, but vaccine development studies frequently test efficacy in adult rather than in neonatal animal models. In countries with endemic tuberculosis (TB), Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is administered as part of the neonatal vaccine regimen because it prevents against the disseminated form of TB in children, alth...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Transdermal application of defined purified antigens might be a promising method for LTBI screening. PMID: 31274404 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
Antonella Riccomi1, Giovanni Piccaro2, Dennis Christensen3, Carla Palma1, Peter Andersen3 and Silvia Vendetti1* 1Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy 2Notified Body, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy 3Department of Infectious Diseases Immunology, Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark Most microbes invading through mucosal surfaces cause disease and therefore strategies to induce mucosal immune responses are strongly needed. Vitamin A metabolites, such as retinoic acid (RA), play crucial roles in programming T and B cells to home to mucosal compa...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the potential of RUTI vaccine to control mycobacterial growth ex vivo and demonstrated the capacity of MGIA to aid the identification of essential immune mechanism. We found an association between the peak response of vaccine-induced growth inhibition and a shift in monocyte phenotype following RUTI vaccination in healthy mice. The vaccination significantly increased the frequency of non-classical Ly6C− monocytes in the spleen after two doses of RUTI. Furthermore, mRNA expressions of Ly6C−-related transcripts (Nr4a1, Itgax, Pparg, Bcl2) were upregulated at the peak vaccine respons...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion: The Mtb infection status had a significant impact on mycobacterial growth inhibition in PBMC from healthy adults in South Korea, a country with an intermediate burden of tuberculosis, with healthy controls showing the greatest mycobacterial growth inhibition. Introduction Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which is a significant burden for the world, reaching 9.6 million new TB cases and 1.5 million deaths per year (1). Also, just under a quarter of the global population is latently infected with Mtb, and 5–10% of them will dev...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 April 2019Source: BiologicalsAuthor(s): Mozhdeh Namvarpour, Majid Tebianian, Reza Mansouri, Seyyed Mahmoud Ebrahimi, Shiva KashkooliAbstractAccording to some difficulties against tuberculosis (TB) vaccination, development of new TB vaccines has been noted in recent years. Selection of proper route for vaccination is one of the most important factors for induction of good immune responses. Hence, in this study, the effects of different administration routes, including intranasal (I.N), subcutaneous (S.C) and intramuscular (I.M) on immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT...
Source: Biologicals - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Abstract According to some difficulties against tuberculosis (TB) vaccination, development of new TB vaccines has been noted in recent years. Selection of proper route for vaccination is one of the most important factors for induction of good immune responses. Hence, in this study, the effects of different administration routes, including intranasal (I.N), subcutaneous (S.C) and intramuscular (I.M) on immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT-6/CFP-10 recombinant protein has been considered. Recombinant ESAT-6/CFP-10 protein with or without adjuvant (MF59 or cholera toxin B (CTB)) was administered b...
Source: Biologicals : Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Biologicals Source Type: research
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