Cerebral changes improved by physical activity during cognitive decline: A systematic review on MRI studies

Publication date: Available online 16 July 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Alexa Haeger, Ana S. Costa, Jörg B. Schulz, Kathrin ReetzAbstractCurrent treatment in late-life cognitive impairment and dementia is still limited, and there is no cure for brain tissue degeneration or reversal of cognitive decline. Physical activity represents a promising non-pharmacological interventional approach in many diseases causing cognitive impairment, but its effect on brain integrity is still largely unknown. Especially research of cerebral alterations in disease state that goes beyond observations of clinical improvement is crucial to understand disease processes and possible effective treatments. In this systematic review, we address the question how physical activity and fitness in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) influences brain architecture compared to cognitively healthy elderly. We review both interventional studies comprising aerobic, coordinative and resistance exercises and observational studies on fitness and physical activity combined with Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI). Different MRI approaches were included such as volumetric and structural analyses, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), functional MRI and Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF). We evaluate MRI results for different exercise modalities and performed a methodological evaluation of interventional studies in cognitive decline compared to normal aging. According to our results, among 12...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research

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“I can’t say when we will have a cure, but we now know through our findings how to ask the question of what is going wrong at the earliest stage of Alzheimer’s. – John O’Keefe Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that affects more than 50 million people worldwide, and 5.8 million in America alone. Dementia is its most common form. According to the Alzheimer’s Association, someone in the United States develops Alzheimer’s every 65 seconds. While there’s currently no treatment or cure that can stop Alzheimer’s or slow progression of the disease...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Aging Alzheimer's Memory and Perception Alzheimer's disease Dementia Source Type: blogs
In this study we show, for the first time, significant alterations in cholesterol efflux capacity in adolescents throughout the range of BMI, a relationship between six circulating adipocyte-derived EVs microRNAs targeting ABCA1 and cholesterol efflux capacity, and in vitro alterations of cholesterol efflux in macrophages exposed to visceral adipose tissue adipocyte-derived EVs acquired from human subjects. These results suggest that adipocyte-derived EVs, and their microRNA content, may play a critical role in the early pathological development of ASCVD. Commentary on the Developing UK Government Position on Hea...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In conclusion, hyperactivation was found in individuals who later progressed to dementia, confirming that it might represent an early biomarker to identify individuals in the prodromal phase of AD and that its understanding could contribute to elucidate the key brain mechanisms that precede dementia.
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 July 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Leonie Beyer, Jonas Schnabel, Philipp Kazmierczak, Michael Ewers, Sonja Schönecker, Catharina Prix, Johanna Meyer-Wilmes, Marcus Unterrainer, Cihan Catak, Oliver Pogarell, Robert Perneczky, Nathalie L. Albert, Peter Bartenstein, Adrian Danek, Katharina Bürger, Johannes Levin, Axel Rominger, Matthias BrendelAbstractObjectivesMany predictive or influencing factors have emerged in investigations of the cognitive reserve model of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). For example, neuronal injury, which correlates with cognitive de...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
AbstractAs the worldwide population ages, the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) increases. However, the results of promising medications have been unsatisfactory. Chinese acupuncture has a long history of treating dementia, but lack of evidence from well-designed randomized controlled trials that validate its efficacy and safety, as well as its lack of clear underlying mechanisms, contribute to its limited application in clinical practice. In recent years, brain imaging technologies, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, have been used to assess brain responses to acupuncture ...
Source: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research
This study will be the first clinical trial to identify the therapeutic potential ofKami Guibi-tang for amnestic MCI. The findings will provide insight into the feasibility of large-scale trials to gather evidence for KGT as a treatment for MCI.Trial registrationKorean Clinical Trial Registry, ID:KCT0002407. Registered on 30 March 2017.
Source: Trials - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
In this study, we aimed to investigate correlated structural and functional brain changes in AD and BD by combining resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion MRI. A group independent component analysis was first performed on the fMRI data to extract 49 intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs). Then we conducted a multi-set canonical correlation analysis on three features, functional network connectivity (FNC) between ICNs, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). Two inter-correlated components show significant group differences. The first component demonstrates distinct brain chan...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
ConclusionsA reduction of the [18F]FDG dose down to 1  MBq/kg is possible when performing 20-min brain PET/MRI without modifying diagnostic performance and quantitative assessments. The advantage is a significant reduction in the patient effective dose, which is non-negligible in longitudinal follow-up studies and in research protocols involving healt hy volunteers.
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Textures of the hippocampus, precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex predicted conversion from MCI to Alzheimer disease at an earlier time point and with higher accuracy than hippocampal volume. PMID: 31228173 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience - Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Psychiatry Neurosci Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal analysis of correctly scaled neuropsychological assessments may provide unbiased proxies for MRI-based measures of dementia risk. PMID: 31206372 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research
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