Contextualizing the pathology in the essential tremor cerebellar cortex: a patholog-omics approach

AbstractSeveral morphological changes, centered in/around Purkinje cells (PCs), have been identified in the cerebellum of essential tremor (ET) patients. These changes have not been contextualized within a broader degenerative disease spectrum, limiting their interpretability. To address this, we compared the severity and patterning of degenerative changes within the cerebellar cortex in patients with ET, other neurodegenerative disorders of the cerebellum (spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs), multiple system atrophy (MSA)], and other disorders that may involve the cerebellum [Parkinson ’s disease (PD), dystonia]. Using a postmortem series of 156 brains [50 ET, 23 SCA (6 SCA3; 17 SCA 1, 2 or 6), 15 MSA, 29 PD, 14 dystonia, 25 controls], we generated data on 37 quantitative morphologic metrics, which were grouped into 8 broad categories: (1) PC loss, (2) heterotopic PCs, (3) PC de ndritic changes, (4) PC axonal changes (torpedoes), (5) PC axonal changes (other than torpedoes), (6) PC axonal changes (torpedo-associated), (7) basket cell axonal hypertrophy, (8) climbing fiber-PC synaptic changes. Our analyses usedz scored raw data for each metric across all diagnoses (5772 total data items). Principal component analysis revealed that diagnostic groups were not uniform with respect to cerebellar pathology. Dystonia and PD each differed from controls in only 2/37 metrics, whereas ET differed in 21, SCA3 in 8, MSA in 19, and SCA1/2/6 in 26 metrics. Comparing ET with primary disord...
Source: Acta Neuropathologica - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Conditions:   Parkinson's Disease;   Tremor;   Dystonia Intervention:   Other: Feed-back controlled deep brain stimulation Sponsor:   University of Oxford Not yet recruiting
Source: - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
CONCLUSION: DBS of subthalamic nucleus should be seen as the most hazardous place of implantation. As a result there is a strong need of "gold standards" based on the connectivity research and closer cooperation of scientists and clinicians. PMID: 31452489 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Neuropsychiatrica - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Acta Neuropsychiatr Source Type: research
Abstract Dystonia and levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) are both hyperkinetic movement disorders. Dystonia arises most often spontaneously, although it may be seen after stroke, injury, or as a result of genetic causes. LID is associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), emerging as a consequence of chronic therapy with levodopa, and may be either dystonic or choreiform. LID and dystonia share important phenomenological properties and mechanisms. Both LID and dystonia are generated by an integrated circuit involving the cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. They also share dysregulation of striatal choliner...
Source: Neurobiology of Disease - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neurobiol Dis Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, patients with movement disorders rated recharging as easy, with low complication rates and acceptable charge burden. PMID: 31419794 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research
ConclusionsNovel compound heterozygous mutations were identified in a Han Chinese pedigree and might represent a cause of EOPD.
Source: Brain and Behavior - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
Abstract Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has evolved considerably over the past 4 decades. Although it has primarily been used to treat movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia, recently it has been approved to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder and epilepsy. Novel potential indications in both neurological and psychiatric disorders are undergoing active study. There have been significant advances in DBS technology, including preoperative and intraoperative imaging, surgical approaches and techniques, and device improvements. In addition to providing significant clinical benefit...
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research
ConclusionAlthough there were no statistically significant changes in the motor functions of all patients after elective IPG replacement, the therapy impedances were significantly higher and TEED was significantly lower after IPG replacement with concurrent Pocket Adapter implantation.
Source: Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Clinical Research Source Type: research
AbstractClinical diagnosis of multiple system atrophy is challenging and many patients with Lewy body disease (i.e. Parkinson ’s disease or dementia with Lewy bodies) or progressive supranuclear palsy are misdiagnosed as having multiple system atrophy in life. The clinical records of 203 patients with a clinical diagnosis of multiple system atrophy were reviewed to identify diagnostic pitfalls. We also examined 12 featur es supporting a diagnosis of multiple system atrophy (red flag features: orofacial dystonia, disproportionate antecollis, camptocormia and/or Pisa syndrome, contractures of hands or feet, inspiratory...
Source: Brain - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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