Immune-related Adverse Events Associated with Cancer Immunotherapy: A Review for the Practicing Rheumatologist.

Immune-related Adverse Events Associated with Cancer Immunotherapy: A Review for the Practicing Rheumatologist. J Rheumatol. 2019 Jul 15;: Authors: Jamal S, Hudson M, Fifi-Mah A, Ye C Abstract Immune checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized cancer therapy by blocking inhibitory pathways of the immune system to fight cancer cells. Their use is often limited by the development of autoimmune toxicities, which can affect multiple organ systems and are referred to as immune-related adverse events (irAE). Amongst these are rheumatologic irAE, including inflammatory arthritis, myositis, vasculitis, and others. Rheumatologic irAE seem to be different from irAE in other organs and from traditional autoimmune diseases in that they can occur early or have delayed onset, and can persist chronically, even after cancer therapy is terminated. As immune checkpoint inhibitors are increasingly used for many types of cancer, it is important for oncologists and rheumatologists to recognize and manage toxicities early. In this review, we discuss currently approved immune checkpoint inhibitors, their mechanisms of action and systemic toxicities, with focus on rheumatic immune related adverse events, their management and impact on further cancer therapy. PMID: 31308203 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: J Rheumatol - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: J Rheumatol Source Type: research

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Glucocorticoids regulate fundamental processes of the human body and control cellular functions such as cell metabolism, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Moreover, endogenous glucocorticoids link the endocrine and immune system and ensure the correct function of inflammatory events during tissue repair, regeneration and pathogen elimination via genomic and rapid non-genomic pathways. Due to their strong immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects on immune cells, tissues and organs, glucocorticoids significantly improve the quality of life of many patients suffering from diseases caused by a dysre...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Hui Zhou, Xiaoyan Fu, Qian Li and Ting Niu* Department of Hematology and Research Laboratory of Hematology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China Background: Immune checkpoint inhibition therapy with monoclonal antibody against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), including nivolumab and pembrolizumab, has demonstrated powerful clinical efficacy in the treatment of advanced cancers. However, there is no evidence-based systematic review on the safety and efficacy of anti-PD-1 antibody in treating lymphoma. Methods: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of nivolumab/pembrolizumab, we analyzed clin...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our data indicate reduced P2X7R expression and function in SLE patients compared with HC and, conversely, increased IL-6 signaling. The possible consequences of reduced P2X7R, mainly on cytokines network deregulation and lymphocyte proliferation, will be further investigated as well as the role of IL-6 as a possible therapeutic target especially in lupus serositis. Introduction With the first reports of Burnstock in 1970s, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has passed from a simple molecule devoted to energy reserve, to a relevant extracellular signaling molecule able to mediate numerous physiological and pat...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Giuseppe Ristagno1*, Francesca Fumagalli1, Barbara Bottazzi2, Alberto Mantovani2,3,4, Davide Olivari1, Deborah Novelli1 and Roberto Latini1 1Department of Cardiovascular Research, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research IRCCS, Milan, Italy 2Humanitas Clinical and Research Center-IRCCS, Milan, Italy 3Humanitas University, Milan, Italy 4The William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom The long pentraxin PTX3 is a member of the pentraxin family produced locally by stromal and myeloid cells in response to proinflammatory signals and microbial moieties. The p...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study was provided by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Manitoba Health Research Council. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. References 1. Sprent J, Kishimoto H. The thymus and central tolerance. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. (2001) 356:609–16. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2001.0846 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar 2. Sakaguchi S, Wing K, Miyara M. Regulatory T cells - a brief history and perspective. ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: June 2018Source: Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 17, Issue 6Author(s): Milena Tocut, Ronen Brenner, Gisele Zandman-GoddardAbstractThe discovery and approved treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for a variety of cancers has changed dramatically the morbidity and mortality rates for these patients.Despite the obvious benefits, their use is associated with unique immune-related adverse effects (irAEs), including autoimmune conditions such as: inflammatory arthritis, myositis, vasculitis and Sicca syndrome.The appearance of ICIs-induced autoimmune irAE requires from oncologists and rheumatologists ...
Source: Autoimmunity Reviews - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Purpose of review Levamisole was previously used for its immunomodulatory properties to treat rheumatoid arthritis and some cancers. However, because of serious side-effects, it was taken off the market in the United States. Recently, levamisole has reemerged as a popular cocaine adulterant. Some individuals who consume levamisole-adulterated cocaine can develop a life-threatening autoimmune syndrome. In this review, the medical consequences of levamisole exposure and postulated mechanisms by which levamisole induces these adverse effects are discussed. Recent findings Although agranulocytosis and cutaneous vasculitis...
Source: Current Opinion in Hematology - Category: Hematology Tags: MYELOID BIOLOGY: Edited by David C. Dale Source Type: research
Conclusions: Arthralgia and myalgia have been reported commonly in patients treated with ICIs. The prevalence of rheumatic IRAEs like inflammatory arthritis, vasculitis, and sicca syndrome is less clear from current evidence. There is limited observational and case‐level evidence describing ICI use in patients with pre‐existing autoimmune disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: Arthritis Care and Research - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
This study included a nationwide dynamic cohort of patients with various newly diagnosed SARDs from 1997 to 2010 with follow-up until 2012. This study included 75,123 patients with SARDs. During 562,870 person-years of follow-up, 2844 patients developed cancer. Between 1997 and 2010, the highest number of newly diagnosed SARDs cases were rheumatoid arthritis (n = 35,182), followed by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, n = 15,623), Sjögren syndrome (n = 11,998), Kawasaki disease (n = 3469), inflammatory bowel disease (n = 2853), scleroderma (n = 1814), Behçet disease (n = 1620), derm...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research
Abstract   Our immune system resembles an intelligent security system, which continually monitors for foreign invaders (infectious diseases); however, in some cases, this system recognizes healthy parts as something harmful or foreign and then attacks them (autoimmune diseases). The defining characteristics of an autoimmune disease are the existence of T- and B-cell autoreactivity against self proteins (autoantigens). In addition to autoimmune diseases, aberrant host proteins that occur during a certain state of diseases (e.g., cancer) can be recognized as an autoantigen. Immune complexes (ICs) are produ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research
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