Functional network connectivity changes in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a resting-state fMRI study.

Functional network connectivity changes in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a resting-state fMRI study. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2019 Jul 12;: Authors: Jiang K, Yi Y, Li L, Li H, Shen H, Zhao F, Xu Y, Zheng A Abstract The study aimed to investigate the pathologic mechanism of functional brain regions in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients through making comparisons of normal and ADHD children from the perspective of the network nodes of brain network and the intensity of functional connection between bilateral of hemispheres by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty-five ADHD and forty-two children were examined by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. Data analysis was done via the degree centrality (DC) and voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) approaches. Compared with healthy subjects, the ADHD group exhibited significantly decreased DC values in the right posterior cingulate gyrus, left medial superior frontal gyrus, right inferior parietal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus. Children with ADHD also exhibited some areas with increased DC values compared with healthy children. These regions included the cerebellar anterior lobe, right middle occipital cortex, left middle cingulate gyrus and right middle cingulate gyrus. VMHC analysis all revealed positive activation in a range of brain regi...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

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Authors: Tran K, Wu J Abstract A 2-year-old male pediatric patient experienced a partial occlusion of the internal carotid and subsequent asphyxiation resulting in hypoxic brain injury that was later misdiagnosed as primary attention deficient hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Imaging analyses using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quantitative volumetrics (QV) were used nine years following the incident to identify whether his development of ADHD is of a primary heritability or secondary hypoxic brain injury sequelae. The patient's DTI analysis g...
Source: Brain Injury - Category: Neurology Tags: Brain Inj Source Type: research
Rui Yan1, ShiWan Tao1, HaiYan Liu1, Yu Chen1, JiaBo Shi1, YuYin Yang1, RongXin Zhu1, ZhiJian Yao1,2* and Qing Lu3,4*1Department of Psychiatry, The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China2Nanjing Brain Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China3School of Biological Sciences and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China4Child Development and Learning Science, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, Nanjing, ChinaBackground: Major depressive disorders often involve somatic symptoms and have been found to have fundamental differences from non-somatic depressi...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusions: Prefrontal gyrification is reduced in children with ADHD who also carry the DRD4 7R allele, and it relates to critical functional skills in the executive domain in carriers of the risk allele. More broadly, these effects highlight the importance of considering precise neurodevelopmental mechanisms through which risk alleles influence cortical neurogenesis and migration.IntroductionAttention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The disorder is thought to affect ar...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
In conclusion, while rs-fMRI use in clinical neuroradiology practice is limited, enthusiasm appears to be quite high and there are several possible avenues in which further research and development may facilitate its penetration into clinical practice. Introduction Techniques for quantifying spatial and temporal brain activity have developed rapidly since the first demonstrations that MRI could be used to measure modulations in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) tissue contrast (1). The observation that MRI could be used to monitor temporally correlated low-frequency activity fluctuations in spatially remote brain a...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion: This study found that HIV-infected pubertal children showed a delayed cortical maturation with atrophy. This abnormal pattern of cortical development may be the structural basis for cognitive impairment in HIV-infected children. Introduction Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related encephalopathy is one of the most serious complications of AIDS and is more common in children than in adults (1). At present, there are nearly 2 million children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world, almost all newly infected children are infected through mother-to-child transmission (2). Effec...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions: These results demonstrate that pathophysiological changes associated with ASD are more likely related to thalamocortical hyperconnectivity than to amygdala-cortical hypoconnectivity. Future studies should examine full sets of clinical and behavioral symptoms in combination with functional connectivity to explore possible biomarkers for ASD.IntroductionAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by atypical social communication and restricted patterns of behavior, interest, or activities, both of which must be present in the early developmental period (1). Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory stimuli and unu...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Nicola Cellini1,2, Renee E. Shimizu3, Patrick M. Connolly3, Diana M. Armstrong4, Lexus T. Hernandez2, Anthony G. Polakiewicz3, Rolando Estrada3†, Mario Aguilar-Simon3, Michael P. Weisend4†, Sara C. Mednick2 and Stephen B. Simons3* 1Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy 2Department of Cognitive Science, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States 3Teledyne Scientific &Imaging, Durham, NC, United States 4Rio Grande Neurosciences, Dayton, OH, United States Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) during sleep has been shown to successfully modula...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
In this study, we compared the dynamic resting-state local and large-scale FC between PTSD patients (n = 22) and healthy controls (HC; n = 22; conducted as standard deviation in resting-state local and large-scale FC over a series of sliding windows). Local dynamic FC was examined by calculating the dynamic regional homogeneity (dReHo), and large-scale dynamic FC (dFC) was investigated between regions with significant dReHo group differences. For the PTSD patients, we also investigated the relationship between symptom severity and dFC/dReHo. Our results showed that PTSD patients were characterized by I) increased dynamic (...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Abstract OBJECTIVES: Recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies implicate structural alterations of amygdala, a brain region responsible for processing and experiencing negative emotions, in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here we examined ADHD-related structural correlates of amygdala functional activity elicited during a functional MRI task designed to test behavioural and brain responses to the imposition of delay - an event known to both elicit amygdala hyperactivation and aversity in ADHD. METHODS: Structural MRI scans from 28 right-handed male adolescents with comb...
Source: The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: World J Biol Psychiatry Source Type: research
Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate further findings that corroborate similarities between corrected sagittal craniosynostosis and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim is to further characterize the neurocognitive deficits seen in adolescents with corrected craniosynostosis by comparing it to established learning deficits such as ADHD. Methods: A total of 30 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of 10 sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis (sNSC), 10 ADHD-combined, and 10 control adolescents were studied. The fMRI scans were analyzed utilizing Statistical Parametric Mappin...
Source: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery - Category: Surgery Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
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