Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury Alters the Gastrointestinal Microbiome in a Time-Dependent Manner

The objective of this study was to evaluate the gut microbiome in a preclinical TBI cortical impact model. Male rats underwent craniotomy and randomized to a sham group (n = 4), or a moderate TBI (n = 10) using a pneumatic impactor. MRI and behavioral assessments were performed pre-TBI and on days 2, 7, and 14 days thereafter. Microbiome composition was determined with 16s rRNA sequencing from fecal sample DNA pre-TBI and 2 hrs, 1, 3, and 7 days afterward. Alpha- and β-bacterial diversity, as well as organizational taxonomic units (OTUs), were determined. Significant changes in the gut microbiome were evident as early as 2 h after TBI as compared with pre-injured samples and sham rats. While there were varying trends among the phylogenetic families across time, some changes persisted through 7 days in the absence of therapeutic intervention. While large structural lesions and behavioral deficits were apparent post-TBI, there were modest but significant decreases in α-diversity. Moreover, both changes in representative phyla and α-diversity measures were significantly correlated with MRI-determined lesion volume. These results suggest that changes in the microbiome may represent a novel biomarker to stage TBI severity and predict functional outcome.
Source: Shock - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Basic Science Aspects Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: Operative Techniques in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryAuthor(s): Zachary R. Barnard, Gregory P. Lekovic, Eric P. Wilkinson, Kevin A. PengMeniere's disease can cause debilitating dizziness and vertigo despite maximal medical management. In select patients, treatment with vestibular nerve section provides optimal outcomes for symptom control and hearing preservation. Vestibular nerve section is also indicated in other vestibular disorders, including refractory uncompensated vestibular neuritis. Surgical approaches for vestibular nerve section include the retrolab...
Source: Operative Techniques in Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 August 2019Source: Operative Techniques in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryAuthor(s): Lorenz Epprecht, Alexander M. HuberVestibular neurectomy for Meniere's disease is considered as a treatment option when conservative methods fail to control debilitating vestibular symptoms. Most common surgical approaches today consist of transtemporal supralabyrinthine (middle fossa), retrolabyrinthine and retrosigmoid craniotomies. The aim of this article is to describe the procedure of vestibular neurectomy via a retrosigmoid approach. This approach can be performed alone or in combination wit...
Source: Operative Techniques in Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
We report the clinical outcomes of SCO treated with single-fraction SRS, as well as a systematic review of the literature.MethodsRetrospective cohort series and systematic literature review.ResultsFive patients (four male, one female) having single-fraction SRS for persistent or recurrent SCO between 2002 and 2018. Median age was 56 (range 54 –79) years. Pre-SRS treatments included transsphenoidal resection (TSR) (n = 3), multiple TSR (n = 1), and TSR, radiotherapy, and craniotomy (n = 1). Median target volume was 4.7 (range 1.8–8.4) cm3, with a median tumor margin dose...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, the neuro-modulation effect of topical mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was tested in a rodent middle carotid artery occlusion (MCAO) model. Twenty-four hours after MCAO, craniotomy was made and 0.8 × 106 GFP-MSCs were topically applied to the exposed parietal cortex. The MSCs were fixed in position by a thin layer of fibrin glue (N = 30). In the control group, saline were topically applied to the ipsilateral parietal cortex (N = 30). Three days after topical application, few GFP-positive cells were found in the ischemic penumbra. They expressed GFAP and NeuN. Topical MSCs triggered microglial...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the most frequent neurologic pathologies and tends to occur in elderly patients after minor head injury. Burr-hole craniotomy with closed-system drainage is the most commonly used technique for treating CSDH patients. Although CSDH has a favorable prognosis following the surgical evacuation, the recurrence rate has been estimated to range from 3% to 33% [1].
Source: Injury - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionPediatric aneurysms are rare, and often present as dissecting thrombosed aneurysms or giant aneurysms. ACA dissecting aneurysms are rare but often occur at a young age, and they easily cause thrombosis, which may occlude the aneurysm and the parent artery, resulting in unknown bleeding sources.It is necessary to suspect rupture of an ACA dissecting aneurysm if there is an ICH and SAH of an unknown source of bleeding where the hematoma is localized near the ACA. Craniotomy can effectively remove the hematoma and identify the bleeding source, and it is more desirable to secure the parent artery to prevent re-rupture.
Source: Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
We report a case of MVNT in a 34-year-old male with a longstanding history of mood instability who presented after new onset seizure-like activity characterized by auditory and visual hallucinations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed a non-enhancing, T2 hyperintense mass in the right anterior temporal lobe. The patient underwent right frontotemporal craniotomy, anterior temporal lobectomy, and amygdalohippocampectomy for resection of the tumor. Microscopic sections of the mass demonstrated lower cortical/subcortical nodular aggregates of “neuronal-type” tumor cells with eosinophilic and multi...
Source: Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
ConclusionsPostoperative ES was diagnosed in 4.9% of patients after brain tumor surgery, and NCSE constituted the overwhelming majority of postoperative ES.
Source: Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: Interdisciplinary NeurosurgeryAuthor(s): Parthiban Velayutham, Sanjib Das Adhikary, Victoria Job, Krothapalli Srinivasa Babu, Vedantam Rajshekhar, Ari George Chacko, Berend MetsAbstractBackgroundDevelopment of perioperative hypertension in craniotomy procedures is commonly associated with activation of sympathetic events through renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Preemptive therapy with β-blockers or angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may attenuate this hypertensive response. We conducted a randomized, double blind; placebo controlled study t...
Source: Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONSkull fractures and associated epidural hematomas in pediatric patients need to be considered as possible complications of the pin-type head fixation application. The head fixation devices in pediatric need to be used with great caution and knowing the risk factors, safe technique for application and management of complications will prevent worse outcome.
Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
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