Identification of Human Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cancer Stem Cells.

Identification of Human Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cancer Stem Cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2019;1879:415-433 Authors: Olivero C, Morgan H, Patel GK Abstract Epithelia are under constant threat from environmental carcinogens and none more so than squamous epithelia, which form the outermost linings of our bodies. Hence malignancies of squamous epithelia are collectively the most common cancer type and with the highest mortality, despite a constant cell turnover and only relatively rare long-lived adult tissue stem cells. Genetic analysis from SCC whole genome sequencing reveals commonality in mutated genes, despite various etiological factors. Most SCC types have been shown to exhibit hierarchical growth, in which a high frequency of cancer stem cells is associated with poor prognosis. For human cutaneous SCC (cSCC), we have shown that cancer stem cells express CD133 and that this population can recreate tumor heterogeneity in a novel in vivo model. CD133+ cSCC cells is small subset of tumor cells (~1%) in the outer layer of cSCC that are highly enriched for tumor-initiating capacity (TIC) (~1/400) compared to unsorted cSCC cells (~1/106). Xenografts of CD133+ cSCC recreated the original cSCC tumor histology and organizational hierarchy, while CD133- cells did not. Only CD133+ cells demonstrated the capacity for self-renewal in serial transplantation studies. Hence, cSCC has the potential to be the ideal model in which to study SCC biology. PMID:...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

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Discussion MDSCs violently emerge in pathological conditions in an attempt to limit potentially harmful immune and inflammatory responses. Mechanisms supporting their expansion and survival are deeply investigated in cancer, in the perspective to reactivate specific antitumor responses and prevent their contribution to disease evolution. These findings will likely contribute to improve the targeting of MDSCs in anticancer immunotherapies, either alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. New evidence indicates that the expansion of myeloid cell differentiation in pathology is subject to fine-tuning, as its...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Hui Zhou, Xiaoyan Fu, Qian Li and Ting Niu* Department of Hematology and Research Laboratory of Hematology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China Background: Immune checkpoint inhibition therapy with monoclonal antibody against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), including nivolumab and pembrolizumab, has demonstrated powerful clinical efficacy in the treatment of advanced cancers. However, there is no evidence-based systematic review on the safety and efficacy of anti-PD-1 antibody in treating lymphoma. Methods: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of nivolumab/pembrolizumab, we analyzed clin...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusion and Perspectives The IL-6/JAK/STAT signaling cascade plays a dominant role in skeletal muscle pathophysiology. IL-6 autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions assign to its downstream effectors pivotal importance in skeletal muscle-wasting-associated diseases and other multiple system diseases where muscle acts in communication with other organs. Targeting the components of the JAK/STAT pathway recently emerged as a strategic approach for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and human cancer. This review highlights the opposite outcomes on muscle biology caused by the amount of local and systemic release ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Conclusion Several TISC-based immunotherapeutic approaches are under development in various stages of preclinical studies. As outlined in this review article, a careful and more exhaustive genetic and metabolic understanding of TISC-associated phenotypes is critical to develop novel TISC based immunotherapies. Various components within the tumor microenvironment such as tumor cells, infiltrating immune cells, and supporting stromal cells impact the TISC metabolism. This unique metabolic profile leads to upregulation of certain enzymes and proteins such as ALDH1, CEP55, IDO COA1 etc., which can be utilized for development ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Reena Goswami1, Gayatri Subramanian2, Liliya Silayeva1, Isabelle Newkirk1, Deborah Doctor1, Karan Chawla2, Saurabh Chattopadhyay2, Dhyan Chandra3, Nageswararao Chilukuri1 and Venkaiah Betapudi1,4* 1Neuroscience Branch, Research Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen, MD, United States 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH, United States 3Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, United States 4Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Clev...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of SNG in a panel of MM cell lines (U266, IM9, MM1S, and RPMI-8226). SNG treatment of MM cells resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability through mitochondrial membrane potential loss and activation of caspase 3, 9, and cleavage of PARP. Pre-treatment of MM cells with a universal caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, prevented SNG mediated loss of cell viability, apoptosis, and caspase activation, confirming that SNG-mediated apoptosis is caspase-dependent. The SNG-mediated apoptosis appears to be resulted from suppres...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions Lymphatic vessels, like blood vessels, are a highly interactive surface for cells of the immune system, and through the use of chemokines and their receptors can coordinate key interactions. These pathways can control the entry and function of particular immune subsets in a number of pathological conditions. Nonetheless LECs have distinct patterns of chemokine secretion and expression of chemokine receptors that distinguish them from the blood vessel system and mediate distinct roles and responses. The abundance and diversity of the chemokine family point to the likelihood that a plethora of novel chemokine fu...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Discussion Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 is an essential molecule for maintaining immune homeostasis and subverting inflammation. Disorders arising from excess inflammation or SOCS1 deficiency can be potentially treated with SOCS1 mimetics (Ahmed et al., 2015). While SOCS1 has promising potential in many disorders, it should be noted that new targets and actions of SOCS1 are still being discovered and not all the effects of this protein are beneficial in autoimmune diseases and cancer. For instance, SOCS1 degrades IRS1 and IRS2, required for insulin signaling, via the SOCS Box domain, thus, limiting its potential in ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT), which is increasingly used to treat patients with malignant and non-malignant conditions, is associated with increased risk for malignancies, including skin cancers. Data on incidence is incomplete, however, as more recent practices have utilized different donor sources and reduced-intensity conditioning regimens. In a contemporary cohort of 1,974 allogeneic HCT  patients, Wu and colleagues found significantly increased incidences of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Tags: Clinical Snippets Source Type: research
In this study, we have evaluated the inflammatory infiltrate cell content and correlated with the vascular density in patients affected by primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) from previous healthy controls and OSCC after cGVHD. Results have demonstrated that patients with OSCC after GVHD show a more consistent inflammatory infiltrate as compared with the OSCC ones. In detail, the inflammatory background composed of CD3-positive T cells, tryptase-positive mast cells, CD31-positive endothelial cells, and CD68-positive macrophages may be more pronounced in the setting of GVHD + OSCC than in the control group. By contr...
Source: Annals of Hematology - Category: Hematology Source Type: research
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