Dysregulation of the Reward and Learning Systems in Tourette Syndrome

To the Editor In their cohort study, Brander et al observed an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder. This risk was even higher in patients with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Interestingly, metabolic and cardiovascular risks were already present at an early stage of the disorder and were actually decreased in patients that used antipsychotic medication for a longer time. These data are relevant for the field because they were previously unknown in this form and must be considered in the future care of these patients.
Source: JAMA Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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This study suggests that there is no difference in aggressive behavior between children with tics without comorbidities and healthy children. It is possible that aggressive behavior in children with tic disorders is predominantly associated with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The purpose of this article is to present current information on the phenomenology, epidemiology, comorbidities, and pathophysiology of tic disorders and discuss therapy options. It is hoped that a greater understanding of each of these components will provide clinicians with the necessary information to deliver thoughtful and optimal care to affected individuals. RECENT FINDINGS Recent advances include the finding that Tourette syndrome is likely due to a combination of several different genes, both low-effect and larger-effect variants, plus environmental factors. Pathophysiologically, increasing e...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research
(Elsevier) Results of a new study in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP), published by Elsevier, reports that parental age is linked to the risk for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders in children, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD); attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); and Tourette's disorder/chronic tic disorder (TD/CT).
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: NeuropsychologiaAuthor(s): Katrine Maigaard, Ayna Baladi Nejad, Kasper Winther Andersen, Damian Marc Herz, Julie Hagstrøm, Anne Katrine Pagsberg, Liselotte Skov, Hartwig Roman Siebner, Kerstin Jessica PlessenAbstractIn children with Tourette syndrome (TS), tics are often attributed to deficient self-control by health-care professionals, parents, and peers. In this behavioural study, we examined response inhibition in TS using a modified Simon task which probes the ability to solve the response conflict between a new non-spatial rule and a highly-overlearned spati...
Source: Neuropsychologia - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Paliperidone has some dynamic and kinetic superiority to the parent drug risperidone. Nonetheless, larger rigorous studies would define the real place of the atypical antipsychotic paliperidone in child and adolescent psychiatry. Until then, risperidone with its long track record in CAP population would remain a first option though.Pharmacology 2019;104:67 –70
Source: Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Prefrontal gyrification is reduced in children with ADHD who also carry the DRD4 7R allele, and it relates to critical functional skills in the executive domain in carriers of the risk allele. More broadly, these effects highlight the importance of considering precise neurodevelopmental mechanisms through which risk alleles influence cortical neurogenesis and migration.IntroductionAttention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The disorder is thought to affect ar...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Estimates were similar when accounting for familial confounding (i.e. genetics and environmental factors shared by cousins) and stronger in girls for ADHD and ASD, potentially indicating a differential influence of prenatal androgen exposure v. genetic factors. These results strengthen evidence for a potential causal influence of prenatal androgen exposure on the development of male-predominant neuropsychiatric disorders in female offspring of women with PCOS. PMID: 30857571 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Psychological Medicine - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research
Patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience comorbid conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Tourette syndrome (TS). Although pharmacotherapies are effective f...
Source: Annals of General Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Case report Source Type: research
How old mothers and fathers are when their children are born may affect their children ’s risk of developing several neuropsychiatric disorders, according to astudy published this week in theJournal of the American Academy of Child&Adolescent Psychiatry.Magdalena Janecka, Ph.D., of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, N.Y., and colleagues analyzed data from the medical and psychiatric records of nearly 1.5 million people in Denmark who were born between 1980 and 2007. They looked at rates of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OC...
Source: Psychiatr News - Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADHD autism chronic tic disorder Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Magdalena Janecka OCD paternal age pediatric disorders Tourette ’s syndrome Source Type: research
Parental age at birth has been shown to affect the rates of a range of neurodevelopmental disorders, but the understanding of the mechanisms through which it mediates different outcomes is still lacking. We used a population-based cohort to assess differential effects of parental age on estimates of risk across pediatric-onset neuropsychiatric disorders: autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome/chronic tic disorder (TS/CT).
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: New Research Source Type: research
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