Pentaerythritol-based lipid A bolsters the antitumor efficacy of a polyanhydride particle-based cancer vaccine

Publication date: Available online 15 July 2019Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and MedicineAuthor(s): Emad I. Wafa, Sean M. Geary, Kathleen A. Ross, Jonathan T. Goodman, Balaji Narasimhan, Aliasger K. SalemAbstractThe primary objective of this study was to enhance the antitumor efficacy of a model cancer vaccine through co-delivery of pentaerythritol lipid A (PELA), an immunological adjuvant, and a model tumor antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), separately loaded into polyanhydride particles (PA). In vitro experiments showed that encapsulation of PELA into PA (PA-PELA) significantly enhanced its stimulatory capacity on dendritic cells as evidenced by increased levels of the cell surface costimulatory molecules, CD80/CD86. In vivo experiments showed that PA-PELA, in combination with OVA-loaded PA (PA-OVA), significantly expanded the OVA-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte population compared to PA-OVA alone. Furthermore, serum OVA-specific antibody titers of mice vaccinated with PA-OVA/PA-PELA displayed a significantly stronger shift toward a Th1-biased immune response compared to PA-OVA alone, as evidenced by the substantially higher IgG2C:IgG1 ratios achieved by the former. Analysis of E.G7-OVA tumor growth curves showed that mice vaccinated with PA-OVA/PA-PELA had the slowest average tumor growth rate.Graphical AbstractThe study indicated that the immunostimulatory effect of PELA on DCs was significantly improved upon encapsulation into PA particles. The study also demonstrated ...
Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research

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AbstractIn the U.S. there is an epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases (STIs). One of the most prevalent STIs is the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Certain high risk strains of HPV are believed to cause virtually all cervical cancers, over 90% of anal cancers, 70% of oropharyngeal cancers, and the majority of anal  genital warts. HPV is preventable through vaccination and is available for both men and women. Several educational interventions have been employed, yet baseline awareness and knowledge related to HPV and 9vHPV remains relatively low among young men. What is not known is the most effective method for provid...
Source: Journal of Community Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
In 2012 to 2016, 92 percent of cancers attributable to HPV due to HPV types targeted by 9vHPV vaccine
Source: The Doctors Lounge - Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Family Medicine, Gynecology, Infections, Nursing, Oncology, Pediatrics, Pharmacy, Journal, Source Type: news
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced Thursday it will increase the vaccination rate of its human papillomavirus by 80 percent nationwide, which could prevent 92 percent of cancers caused by HPV.
Source: Health News - UPI.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
FRIDAY, Aug. 23, 2019 -- Ninety-two percent of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers are attributable to HPV types targeted by the 9-valent HPV vaccine (9vHPV), according to research published in the Aug. 23 issue of the U.S. Centers for...
Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
Genetic instability of tumor cells often leads to the occurrence of a large number of mutations, and expression of non-synonymous mutations can produce tumor-specific antigens called neoantigens. Neoantigens a...
Source: Molecular Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Abstract The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends routine vaccination of persons aged 11-12 years to protect against certain diseases, including human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers, meningococcal disease, and pertussis (1). A booster dose of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) is recommended at age 16 years, and serogroup B meningococcal vaccine (MenB) may be administered to persons aged 16-23 years (1). To estimate vaccination coverage among adolescents in the United States, CDC analyzed data from the 2018 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) which in...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
Abstract Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes nearly all cervical cancers and some cancers of the vagina, vulva, penis, anus, and oropharynx (1).* Most HPV infections are asymptomatic and clear spontaneously within 1 to 2 years; however, persistent infection with oncogenic HPV types can lead to development of precancer or cancer (2). In the United States, the 9-valent HPV vaccine (9vHPV) is available to protect against oncogenic HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 as well as nononcogenic types 6 and 11 that cause genital warts. CDC analyzed data from the U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS)† to assess the incide...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
THURSDAY, Aug. 22 -- While there's been a slight uptick in the number of American boys who get the HPV vaccine to help prevent certain cancers, a new study finds there's been almost no increase for girls. And overall, too few kids are getting the...
Source: Drugs.com - Daily MedNews - Category: General Medicine Source Type: news
AbstractPurposeFew population-based studies have examined the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and risk factors, quality of life (QOL), and health behaviors of cancer survivors and their spouses. This case-control study aimed to fill this gap using the data from a set of large-scale surveys of individuals and families across the USA.MethodsData were obtained from the 2010 –2015 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Using one-to-many (1:5) propensity score matching, we identified cancer survivors (N = 1037) and noncancer-matched controls (N = 5185), as well as survivor spouses ...
Source: Journal of Cancer Survivorship - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: 20 August 2019Source: Cell Reports, Volume 28, Issue 8Author(s): John D. Gagnon, Robin Kageyama, Hesham M. Shehata, Marlys S. Fassett, Darryl J. Mar, Eric J. Wigton, Kristina Johansson, Adam J. Litterman, Pamela Odorizzi, Dimitre Simeonov, Brian J. Laidlaw, Marisella Panduro, Sana Patel, Lukas T. Jeker, Margaret E. Feeney, Michael T. McManus, Alexander Marson, Mehrdad Matloubian, Shomyseh Sanjabi, K. Mark AnselSummaryCoordinate control of T cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation are essential for host protection from pathogens and cancer. Long-lived memory cells, whose precursors are forme...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
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