Determining and unravelling origins of reduced photoinactivation efficacy of bacteria in milk

This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the treatment of bovine mastitis, as an alternative to systemic antibiotics. To identify the key factors affecting photoinactivation efficacy, realistic experiments in view of the end-use were conducted in milk samples using two different photosensitizers: methylene blue (MB) and silicon (IV) phthalocyanine derivative (SiPc). We explored the effects of divalent ions and fat content on the aPDT outcome and determined influence of different proteins on aPDT efficacy. Levels of bacterial sensitivity to PSs varied depending on the type of bacteria (Gram-positive vs. Gram-negative) and light exposure time. Critical interrelated factors affecting aPDT in milk were identified and an efficient combination of treatment conditions that can lead to a full photodynamic inactivation of bacteria was determined.Graphical Abstract
Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

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We present an unusual case of a large dumb-bell-shaped cold abscess arising due to infection of the sternum. A 23-year-old immunocompetent Asian woman presented with a gradually progressing painless swelling on anterior chest wall for the last 5  months. She had a large visible swelling on anterior chest wall which was 12.5 cm in diameter, soft, non-tender, temperature was not raised, and fluctuant. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large dumb-bell-shaped hyperintense collection in upper anterior chest wall with marrow edema and corti cal irregularity in left side of manubrium. Pus was positive for nucleic ...
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Conclusions: No safety concerns were identified from this retrospective EHR review of hospitalized adults who received a milk and molasses enema for constipation relief. The findings indicate that this treatment is safe, although further study examining its efficacy in this population is needed.
Source: AJN - Category: Nursing Tags: Feature Articles Source Type: research
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Source: AJN - Category: Nursing Tags: Feature Articles Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 August 2019Source: Food HydrocolloidsAuthor(s): M. Espert, L. Wiking, A. Salvador, T. SanzAbstractThe design of reduced-fat spreads as a healthier alternative has been the subject of extensive attention lately. Reduced fat cellulose ether emulsions prepared using anhydrous milk fat (AMF) were compared with butter and pure AMF. The emulsions were composed of 47% AMF, water, and 2% cellulose ether. Three types of cellulose ethers were investigated: two methylcelluloses (A4M and MX) and one hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (F4M)). Structural behavior was analyzed by penetration test and smal...
Source: Food Hydrocolloids - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Conclusion This study revealed that Enterococcus species with biofilm potentials and extracellular virulence properties extensively occur in retail RTE shrimps. A significant number of isolated strains are resistant to antibiotics and harbor resistant and virulent genes, denoting a significant route of resistance and virulence dissemination to bacteria in humans. There is an inadequate understanding of the intricacies of antibiotic-resistant enterococci of food origin that belong to enterococci aside from E. faecium and E. faecalis. Findings from this study reveal detailed antibiotic resistance of E. durans, E. casselifla...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, we found that the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and mineralized nodules in MC3T3-E1 cells were both significantly increased after treatment with AG (5, 10, and 20 μM). Meanwhile, the mRNA and protein levels of osteoblastic marker genes in MC3T3-E1 cells after AG treatment were markedly increased compared with a control group. In addition, the levels of BMP-2, p-Smad1/5/9, and Runx2 were significantly elevated in AG-treated MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, we found that the protein levels of Erk1/2, p-Erk1/2, p38, p-p38, and p-JNK were also significantly increased in AG-treated MC3T3-E1 cells compared ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
e;lia Lobato Bovine vaccinia (BV), caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), is a zoonosis characterized by exanthematous lesions in the teats of dairy cows and the hands of milkers and is an important public health issue. Severe VACV-induced lesions in the teats and udder of cows and buffaloes could lead to mastitis and other secondary infections, thereby reducing productivity and resulting in economic losses to the dairy industry. In Brazil, BV re-emerged in the late 1990s and is now endemic in most of the Brazilian territory. In the last 15 years, much effort has been made to know more about this disease and its epidemiology...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
SIGNIFICANT progress has been made in tackling problems with mastitis, lameness and longevity in the cattle industry in Great Britain, according to the latest state-of-the-industry report from the Cattle Health and Welfare Group (CHAWG). The CHAWG, which, among other things, provides an industry forum for encouraging and coordinating a programme of economically focused improvements to cattle health and welfare, published its third biennial report on November 22. In a foreword to the report, the Chief Veterinary Officers (CVOs) of the UK, Scotland and Wales welcome ‘solid progress’ in the control of mastitis and...
Source: Veterinary Record - Category: Veterinary Research Tags: News section Source Type: research
THE UK is well known for producing safe, quality milk that goes into making products that support healthy diets. However, in the UK and around the world, milk production is set back by the occurrence of bovine mastitis, an endemic disease representing not only a financial and emotional burden for farmers (McLeod 2008, Jansen 2010, Kolstrup and Hultgren 2011), but also a welfare problem for dairy cows (von Keyserlingk and others 2009). Despite years of research and information about the risk factors and management strategies related to mastitis incidence and prevalence, there is still substantial room for improvement, and n...
Source: Veterinary Record - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Editorials Research Source Type: research
This study intends to report the first emergence of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Iraq, in addition to describing its related clinical signs. In August 2013, 21 cases of four outbreaks developed clinical signs suggestive of LSD in the Nineveh (Mosul) and Baghdad Governorates, which were considered as the first infected foci of LSD in Iraq. The disease was diagnosed tentatively, on the basis of clinical signs and epidemiological features, and it was confirmed as positive by the polymerase chain reaction and histopathological features. In September 2013, eight new outbreaks of LSD also appeared in Baghdad and Nineveh. In 2014,...
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Rapid Communication Source Type: research
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