Clostridium difficile colitis: CT findings and differential diagnosis

AbstractClostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a severe and potentially deadly infectious colitis whose incidence is dramatically increasing in the last decades, with more virulent strains. CDI should be suspected in case of unexplained diarrhea and abdominal pain in patients with a recent history of antibiotic use and healthcare exposures; diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical and laboratory findings with demonstration of C. difficile toxins by stool test. The advantages of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) are the noninvasiveness and the ability to evaluate both the colonic wall and the adjacent soft tissues. Considerable overlap exists between the CECT findings of CDI and those of colitis of other origins, such as typhlitis, ischemic colitis, graft-versus-host disease, radiation colitis and inflammatory bowel diseases; however, some features may help distinguish between these conditions. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the imaging features of Clostridium difficile colitis and its mimics, with a view to assist the radiologist in reaching the correct diagnosis.
Source: La Radiologia Medica - Category: Radiology Source Type: research

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This study also found that Proteus DNA, a genus with many uropathogenic species (Drzewiecka, 2016), was more prevalent in women with OAB compared to asymptomatic controls (Curtiss et al., 2017). IC A recent study by Abernethy et al. suggested that the microbiome may play a role in IC (Abernethy et al., 2017). In this study, 16S rRNA analysis determined the microbiome of catheterized urine from women (n = 40) with IC was not dominated by a single genus and was less likely to contain Lactobacillus compared to asymptomatic women. Abernethy et al. also showed that L. acidophilus was associated with less severe scores on the ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusion This paper summarizes the current findings regarding the anti-colitis activity of plant-derived alkaloids and shows how these alkaloids exhibit significant and beneficial effects in alleviating colonic inflammation. These natural alkaloids are not only promising agents for IBD treatment but are also components for developing new wonder drugs. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms or toxicological evaluation of most plant-derived alkaloids still require much scientific research, and their actual efficacies for IBD patients have not been verified well in field research. Thus, further clinical trials to elu...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Discussion There are numerous microbial communities inhabited in the human body, which is critical to human health. The relationship between human microbiome and diseases received much attention from both medical and bioinformatics community recently. However, traditional methods to detect their association is costly and labor-intensive. Thus, we proposed here a new computational model called NBLPIHMDA to infer potential microbe-disease associations. NBLPIHMDA first combined known microbe-disease associations in HMDAD and the Gaussian interaction profile kernel similarity to construct disease similarity network and microb...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Fecal microbiota transplantation may increase the proportion of participants achieving clinical remission in UC. However, the number of identified studies was small and the quality of evidence was low. There is uncertainty about the rate of serious adverse events. As a result, no solid conclusions can be drawn at this time. Additional high-quality studies are needed to further define the optimal parameters of FMT in terms of route, frequency, volume, preparation, type of donor and the type and disease severity. No studies assessed efficacy of FMT for induction of remission in CD or in pediatric participants. I...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
A middle-aged female with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (with mixed features of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease), iron deficiency anaemia and recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis presented to the emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain, haematochezia and diarrhoea. An abdominal plain film obtained during her work-up demonstrated a portion of the distal transverse, descending and sigmoid colon lacking normal haustral patterns (lead pipe sign) (figure 1, arrows). Figure 1Lead pipe sign—abdominal X-ray showing a large burden of stool throughout the colon to the descending colon where the...
Source: Postgraduate Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Drugs: gastrointestinal system, GI bleeding, Inflammatory bowel disease, Emergency medicine, Journalology, Immunology (including allergy), Pain (neurology), Malnutrition, Connective tissue disease, Dermatology, Ethics, Metabolic disorders Images in medi Source Type: research
Conclusions The quality of care for patients admitted with IBD colitis flares is variable. These data outline opportunities for improvement, particularly in regard to pain management, VTE prophylaxis, and follow-up. Further studies are needed to test intervention strategies for practice improvement.
Source: Digestive Diseases and Sciences - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis usually occurs in immunocompromised patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, organ transplantation, and malignancy receiving chemotherapy or ulcerative colitis receiving immunosuppressive agents. However, CMV colitis is increasingly recognized in immunocompetent hosts. Notably, CMV colitis coexisting with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in apparently healthy individuals has been published in recent years, which could result in high morbidity and mortality. CMV colitis is a rare but possible differential diagnosis in immunocompetent patients with abdominal p...
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: J Microbiol Immunol Infect Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2016 Source:Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection Author(s): Khee-Siang Chan, Wen-Ying Lee, Wen-Liang Yu Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis usually occurs in the immunocompromised patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, organ transplantation, and malignancy receiving chemotherapy or ulcerative colitis receiving immunosuppressive agents. However, CMV colitis is increasingly recognized in the immunocompetent hosts. Notably, CMV colitis coexisting with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in apparently healthy individuals has been published in recent yea...
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusion This study demonstrates that rapid acquisition axial and coronal T2 HASTE MR is a practical, safe and effective method in the diagnosis of acute abdominal pain. MR is the preferred option to CT in patients of an age prone to radiation with a potential surgical diagnosis. Clinical relevance/application MRI in acute abdominal imaging is both effective and practical and is the preferred imaging option in patients of an age prone to radiation with a potential surgical diagnosis. Graphical abstract
Source: European Journal of Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Discussion Abdominal pain is a common problem for children and a review can be found here.here. Functional gastrointestinal diseases are one of the most common problems not only in children but throughout the lifespan and a review can be found here. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gastrointestinal diseases with 10 to 15% of children suffering from IBS. The cause is unknown but it is considered a brain-gut disorder. “It is postulated that the state of disregulation exists/occurs within the enteric and the central nervous systems in patients with IBS and this results in alteration in sensat...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
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