Carcinogenesis Associated with Human Papillomavirus Infection. Mechanisms and Potential for Immunotherapy

AbstractHuman papillomavirus (HPV) infection is responsible for approximately 5% of all cancers and is associated with 30% of all pathogen-related cancers. Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide; about 70% of cervical cancer cases are caused by the high-risk HPVs (HR HPVs) of genotypes 16 and 18. HPV infection occurs mainly through sexual contact; however, viral transmission via horizontal and vertical pathways is also possible. After HPV infection of basal keratinocytes or ecto-endocervical transition zone cells, viral DNA persists in the episomal form. In most cases, infected cells are eliminated by the immune system. Occasionally, elimination fails, and HPV infection becomes chronic. Replication of HPVs in dividing epithelial cells is accompanied by increased expression of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins. These oncoproteins are responsible for genomic instability, disruption of the cell cycle, cell proliferation, immortalization, and malignant transformation of HPV-infected cells. Besides, E6 and E7 oncoproteins induce immunosuppression, preventing the detection of HPV-infected and transformed cells by the immune system. HPV integration into the genome of the host cell leads to the upregulation of E6 and E7 expression and contributes to HPV-associated malignization. Prophylactic HPV vaccines can prevent over 80% of HPV-associated anogenital cancers. The vaccine elicits immune response that prevents initial infection with a given HPV type but does not...
Source: Biochemistry (Moscow) - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

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es are ancient small DNA viruses and represent the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world. In the majority, HPV infection is cleared by an incompletely understood immune response. HPV is a necessary but not sufficient cause of cervical cancer, and responsible for a proportion of other anogenital cancers including vulval, vaginal, anal and oropharyngeal. Oncogenesis is likely mediated through viral proteins which hijack host-cell machinery in epithelial keratinocytes and disrupt host tumour-suppressor proteins.
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Prolonged infection of uterine cervix epithelium with human papillomavirus (HPV) and constitutive expression of viral oncogenes have been recognized as the main cause of the complex molecular changes leading to transformation of cervical epithelial cells. Deregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNA), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA), and circular RNAs (circRNA) is involved in the initiation and promotion processes of cervical cancer development. Expression profiling of small RNAs in cervical neoplasia revealed up-regulated “oncogenic” miRNAs, such as miR-10a, miR-21, miR-19, and miR-146a, and down regulated “...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that crocetin, ergosterol peroxide and κ-carrageenan natural products binds strongly to both HPV-16 and HPV-18 and could potentially serve as a scaffolding for further drug development. PMID: 31995016 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Med Chem Source Type: research
Authors: Okunade KS Abstract Cervical cancer is by far the most common HPV-related disease. About 99.7% of cervical cancer cases are caused by persistent genital high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Worldwide, cervical cancer is one of the most common cancer in women with an estimated 528,000 new cases reported in 2012. Most HPV infections clear spontaneously but persistent infection with the oncogenic or high-risk types may cause cancer of the oropharynx and anogenital regions. The virus usually infects the mucocutaneous epithelium and produces viral particles in matured epithelial cells and then causes...
Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - Category: OBGYN Tags: J Obstet Gynaecol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The immunogenicity of two-dose and three-dose HPV vaccine schedules, measured using antibody responses in young females, is comparable. The quadrivalent vaccine probably reduces external genital lesions and anogenital warts in males compared with control. The nonavalent and quadrivalent vaccines offer similar protection against a combined outcome of cervical, vaginal, and vulval precancer lesions or cancer. In people living with HIV, both the bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines result in high antibody responses. For all comparisons of alternative HPV vaccine schedules, the certainty of the body of evidence ...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
New evidence published in the Cochrane Library today provides further information on the benefits and harms of different human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and vaccine schedules in young women and men.HPV is the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract in both women and men globally (WHO 2017). Most people who have sexual contact will be exposed to HPV at some point in their life. In most people, their own immune system will clear the HPV infection.HPV infection can sometimes persist if the immune system does not clear the virus. Persistent infection with some ‘high-risk’ strains of HPV can lead t...
Source: Cochrane News and Events - Category: Information Technology Authors: Source Type: news
Abstract Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a diverse group of double-stranded DNA viruses that present high tropism for the epithelium and infect keratinocytes. Currently, over 200 viral types have been identified, and almost 40 types preferentially infect the epithelial cells of the genital tract. Infections caused by HPV are the most prevalent viral infections that are sexually transmitted in the world. Given how HPV infection is one of the key factors in the development of cervical cancer, we need to develop more effective diagnostic methods to correctly diagnose patients. The significance of our research is that w...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Abstract DNA methylation is an epigenetic alteration that may lead to carcinogenesis by silencing key tumor suppressor genes. Hypermethylation of the paired box gene 1 (PAX1) promoter is important in cervical cancer development. Here, PAX1 methylation levels were compared between Uyghur and Han patients with cervical lesions. Data on PAX1 methylation in different cervical lesions were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, whereas data on survival and PAX1 mRNA expression in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) were retrieved from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. MassARRAY spectrometry was use...
Source: Gene - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Gene Source Type: research
A causal link between Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and breast cancer (BC) remains controversial. In spite of this, the observation that HPV DNA is over-represented in the Triple Negative (TN) BC has been reported. Here we remark the high prevalence of HPV DNA (44.4%) in aggressive BC subtypes (TN and HER2+) in a population of 273 Italian women and we convey the presence of HPV DNA in the epithelial and stromal compartments by in situ hybridization. As previously reported, we also found that serum derived-extracellular vesicles (EVs) from BC affected patients contain HPV DNA. Interestingly, in one TNBC patient, the same HPV D...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Authors: Okunade KS Abstract Cervical cancer is by far the most common HPV-related disease. About 99.7% of cervical cancer cases are caused by persistent genital high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Worldwide, cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women with an estimated 528,000 new cases reported in 2012. Most HPV infections clear spontaneously but persistent infection with the oncogenic or high-risk types may cause cancer of the oropharynx and anogenital regions. The virus usually infects the mucocutaneous epithelium and produces viral particles in matured epithelial cells and then cause...
Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - Category: OBGYN Tags: J Obstet Gynaecol Source Type: research
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