Designing noninferiority tuberculosis treatment trials: Identifying practical advantages for drug regimens with acceptable effectiveness

by Piero L. Olliaro, Michel Vaillant In this Collection Review for the Novel Treatments for Tuberculosis Collection, Piero Olliaro and Michael Vaillant discuss the considerations when choosing a non-inferiority margin that is meaningful from statistical, ethical, clinical, and health standpoint.
Source: PLoS Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

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DiscussionIntestinal TB most commonly affected region is the ileocaecal, accounts for 64% of the incidence of gastrointestinal TB. The main reasons for the predilection of ileocaecal region are due to relatively longer faecal static, the abundant of lymphoid tissue, a neutral pH environment and absorptive transport mechanisms that allow swallowed mycobacterium to be absorbed. Intestinal TB may pose similar symptoms as those found in pulmonary TB, yet patients most commonly presenting with abdominal pain. Bacteriological signs and histopathological findings are gold standard for ITB diagnosis. Therapy for ITB includes pharm...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
In this study, we attempted to identify the key structural feature for highly potent GyrB inhibitors through 2D-QSAR using HQSAR, 3D-QSAR using CoMSIA and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations approaches on a series of thiazole urea core derivatives. The best HQSAR and CoMSIA models based on IC50 and MIC displayed the structural basis required for good activity against both GyrB enzyme and mycobacterial cell. MD simulations and binding free energy analysis using MM-GBSA and waterswap calculations revealed that the urea core of inhibitors has the strongest interaction with Asp79 via hydrogen bond interactions. In addition, ca...
Source: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: SAR QSAR Environ Res Source Type: research
Conclusions: A six-month course of isoniazid proved to be safe and effective in the treatment of LTBI, which is essential to reducing the risk of developing active tuberculosis.RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever a incid ência de tuberculose ativa e a ocorrência de eventos adversos do tratamento com isoniazida em pacientes diagnosticados com tuberculose latente (TBL), portadores de doenças inflamatórias crônicas e tratados com agentes imunobiológicos em uma área endêmica no Brasil. Métodos: O diagnóstico de TBL foi feito com base em anamnese, exame clínico, ra...
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
To describe the surgical techniques in a case of female genital tuberculosis (TB) with superimposed tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) in a developed country.
Source: The Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: Virtual Poster Session 1: Laparoscopy (10:00 AM — 10:10 AM) 10:00 AM: STATION P Source Type: research
Journal of Medicinal ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b01187
Source: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
The dual challenge of low diagnostic sensitivity of microscopy test and technical challenge of performing a TB culture test poses a problem for case detection and initiation of Tuberculosis (TB) second-line tr...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Background: Previously, we have found that blockade of PD-1/PD-Ls pathway could enhance CD4+ T cells-mediated protective immunity in patients with active tuberculosis (ATB). However, the mechanism of PD-1/PD-Ls pathway involved in negative regulation of anti-TB immunity has been still unclear. Recently, the study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection demonstrated that PD-1 could induce the expression of basic leucine zipper ATF-like transcription factor (BATF) to inhibit CD8+ T cell function. While the mechanism of immune regulation of BATF in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection has not yet been elucidat...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of two attenuated vaccines, BCG and MTBVAC, after each was given to 17 goats (2  months old) and then exposed for 9 months to goats infected withM. caprae. In general, MTBVAC-vaccinated goats showed higher interferon-gamma release than BCG vaccinated goats in response to bovine protein purified derivative and ESAT-6/CFP-10 antigens and the response was significantly higher than that observed in the control group until challenge. All animals showed lesions consistent with TB at the end of the study. Goats that received either vaccine showed significantly ...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation between condemnations in slaughterhouses situated in Minas Gerais State and notifications to the Brazilian Official Veterinary Service of cattle that were positive for intradermal tuberculin tests. Data were obtained from three slaughterhouses under different surveillance conditions and from the Brazilian Agriculture and Livestock Health Agency for 2011 to 2017. During this period, there was an increase in the number of condemnations of females aged over 36  months, despite the number of females testing with intradermal tests and being reported as positive dec...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
[The Herald] Zimbabwe has paid US$300 000 to the Global Fund to fight Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria in addition to another US$200 000 which was paid a fortnight ago for its 2017-2019 commitment.
Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
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