Immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: Current and future.

Immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: Current and future. World J Gastroenterol. 2019 Jun 28;25(24):2977-2989 Authors: Johnston MP, Khakoo SI Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arises on the background of chronic liver disease. Despite the development of effective anti-viral therapeutics HCC is continuing to rise, in part driven by the epidemic of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Many patients present with advanced disease out with the criteria for transplant, resection or even locoregional therapy. Currently available therapeutics for HCC are effective in a small minority of individuals. However, there has been a major global interest in immunotherapies for cancer and although HCC has lagged behind other cancers, great opportunities now exist for treating HCC with newer and more sophisticated agents. Whilst checkpoint inhibitors are at the forefront of this revolution, other therapeutics such as inhibitory cytokine blockade, oncolytic viruses, adoptive cellular therapies and vaccines are emerging. Broadly these may be categorized as either boosting existing immune response or stimulating de novo immune response. Although some of these agents have shown promising results as monotherapy in early phase trials it may well be that their future role will be as combination therapy, either in combination with one another or in combination with treatment modalities such as locoregional therapy. Together these agents are likely to generate new and ex...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 23 August 2019Source: The Social Science JournalAuthor(s): Zefeng BaiAbstractThe present study investigates the impact of two drinking habits – moderate drinking and heavy drinking – on marijuana use among college-aged youths. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 97 (NLSY97), this paper reveals that there is a positive association between both drinking habits and marijuana use in the long run, indicating that alcohol and marijuana are complements. However, in the short run, the association between marijuana and alcohol varies based on different drinkin...
Source: The Social Science Journal - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
ConclusionElevated AURKB expression was strongly correlated to TMZ resistant acquisition and poor prognosis, furthermore, targeting AURKB would be a potential therapeutic target for GBM patients.
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Genomic analysis of three recent ZIKV isolates revealed some nonsynonymous substitutions, which could have an impact on the viral fitness in mammalian and insect cells. PMID: 31432892 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research
Ali Mahzari1, Songpei Li1, Xiu Zhou1,2, Dongli Li2, Sherouk Fouda1, Majid Alhomrani1, Wala Alzahrani1, Stephen R. Robinson1 and Ji-Ming Ye1,2* 1Lipid Biology and Metabolic Disease Laboratory, School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia 2School of Biotechnology and Health Sciences, Wuyi University, Jiangmen, China The present study investigated the effects of matrine on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in mice induced by a methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet and the mechanism involved. The study was performed in C57B/6J mice fed a MCD diet for 6 weeks to induce NAS...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) makes up 75%-85% of all primary liver cancers and is the fourth most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. Chronic liver disease is the most significant risk factor for HCC with 80%-90% of new cases occurring in the background of cirrhosis. Studies have shown that early diagnosis of HCC through surveillance programs improve prognosis and availability of curative therapies. All patients with cirrhosis and high-risk hepatitis B patients are at risk for HCC and should undergo surveillance. The recommended surveillance modality is abdominal ultrasound (US) given that i...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma is the third most frequent cause of cancer death worldwide, particularly in Asia and Africa. Most cases complicate an underlying liver cirrhosis due to hepatitis B or C chronic virus infection or alcoholic abuse. But, following the current epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes, it appears that these diseases, associated in metabolic syndrome, are responsible for non alcoholic fatty liver disease at risk of HCC frequently before the stage of cirrhosis. Recent hypotheses consider that in the near future, cancer deaths due to HCC will overpass in USA those due to breast or colorec...
Source: Bulletin du Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Bull Cancer Source Type: research
Authors: Ghouri YA, Mian I, Rowe JH Abstract Since the 1970s, the epidemic of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has spread beyond the Eastern Asian predominance and has been increasing in Northern hemisphere, especially in the United States (US) and Western Europe. It occurs more commonly in males in the fourth and fifth decades of life. Among all cancers, HCC is one of the fastest growing causes of death in the US and poses a significant economic burden on healthcare. Chronic liver disease due to hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus and alcohol accounts for the majority of HCC cases. Incidence of nonalcoholic fatty...
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common human malignancies and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide [1]. A retrospective cohort study of indications for adult liver transplantation from 2002 to 2012 revealed a nearly 4-fold increase in patients undergoing liver transplantation for HCC secondary to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) compared to only a 2.5-fold increase for HCC secondary to HCV during the study period [2]. With the control of viral hepatitis and the escalating obesity epidemic, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated HCC is occupying a greater proportion of HCC inc...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and its prevalence is increasing in relation to the epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Unhealthy lifestyles associated with metabolic disorders are per se risk conditions for NAFLD progression, and specific gene polymorphisms may also favor oncogenesis, particularly in the presence of advanced fibrosis or cryptogenic cirrhosis. However, NAFLD-associated HCC may also develop in non-cirrhotic NAFLD and is frequently diagnosed at a more advanced tumor stage, compared with...
Source: Current Hepatitis Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Chronic metabolic insult to the liver by alcohol and other nutritional abuse results in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), both of which are well-recognized risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). ALD is a leading HCC etiology in several European countries, while the epidemic of obesity and associated metabolic syndrome (eg, type 2 diabetes [T2D]), has led to an increased recognition of NAFLD/NASH as a rapidly increasing HCC risk factor globally, particularly in Western countries such as the United States.
Source: Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Commentries Source Type: research
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