Kidney Complications of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A Review

Publication date: Available online 11 July 2019Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Roman Shingarev, Ilya G. GlezermanImmunologic control of malignancy has long been recognized as an important determinant of disease progression. Recent advances in immunology have led to the focus on several mechanisms that can be targeted to achieve tumor suppression. In particular, checkpoint inhibition has evolved in less than a decade to become one of the most important strategies in cancer therapy, with a meaningful improvement in patient survival. Six agents have been approved for clinical use to date and many more are in the industry pipeline. The spectrum of malignancies responsive to immunotherapy ranges from advanced melanoma, for which the first immune checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab was approved, to Hodgkin lymphoma, non–small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and others. Notwithstanding its clinical benefits, checkpoint inhibition carries a risk for significant off-target toxicity stemming from the immune system activation. In this review, we discuss general principles of checkpoint inhibition, mechanisms of toxicity, and kidney complications of the treatment and propose diagnostic and treatment strategies when kidney injury occurs.
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

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Authors: Latha S, Selvamani P, Prabha T Abstract Natural products have a unique place in the healthcare industry. The genus Commiphora emerged as a potential medicinal with huge benefits as evidenced through its use in various traditional and modern systems of medicine. Therefore, we aimed to prepare a concise review on the pharmacological activities and the indigenous uses of various plant species belonging to the genus Commiphora along with the structural information of various active botanical ingredients present in these plants based on the published literatures and scientific reports. To collect the various pu...
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Cardiology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem Source Type: research
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Source: European Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
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Source: European Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
The objective of this document is to provide evidence-based guidance to assist clinical laboratories in establishing fit-for-purpose PD-L1 biomarker assays that can accurately identify patients with specific tumor types who may respond to specific approved immuno-oncology therapies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint. These recommendations are issued as 38 Guideline Statements that address (i) assay development for surgical pathology and cytopathology specimens, (ii) reporting elements, and (iii) quality assurance (including validation/verification, internal quality assurance, and external quality assurance). The intent of...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - Category: Chemistry Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
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Source: International Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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