Carotid artery plaque detected on ultrasound is associated with impaired cognitive state in the elderly: A population-based study in Wakiso district, Uganda

This study set out to determine the prevalence of abnormal carotid ultrasound findings and their association with cognitive function among the adults ≥60 years in Wakiso district, Uganda in 2018. A total of 210 participants were included. Carotid artery stenosis, presence of plaque, stenosis and intima-media thickness were assessed by ultrasound. Cognitive status was assessed using a Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) test. The prevalence of plaque was 21.4%. Variables which included; presence of plaque, age, education, gender, marital status, whether participant stayed alone or with someone else, care for self, occupation status, division of staying and history of smoking. The presence of plaque was associated with an abnormal cognitive function at both univariate and multivariate analysis with respective OR = 3.8 (95% CI = 1.90–7.54, p-value = 0.0001) and OR = 3.4 (95% CI = 1.38–8.15, p-value = 0.007). The cognitive function distribution was 43.8%, 19%, 34.3% and 2.9% within the normal, mild, moderate, and severe cognitive function status respectively. This study showed that prevalence of carotid artery plaque was high in this elderly population in Wakiso district Uganda. Also, carotid artery plaque was associated with abnormal cognitive function.
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Conclusion Swim training, a sport characterized by unique cardiac loading conditions, stimulates eccentric LV remodeling with the concomitant augmentation of systolic twist and diastolic relaxation. This volume-mediated cardiac remodeling appears to result in greater systolic susceptibility to acute afterload challenge. Further work is required to establish how training-induced changes in function translate to human performance and whether these are accompanied by physiologic trade-offs with relevance to common forms of heart disease.
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - Category: Sports Medicine Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCES Source Type: research
Conclusion Our study provides novel evidence that EXE-induced antisenescence against metabolic distress in the hippocampus may be a key neuroprotective mechanism, preventing neuroinflammation and oxidative stress.
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - Category: Sports Medicine Tags: BASIC SCIENCES Source Type: research
Conclusions The increase in HR rather than an increase in CBF or forearm venous volume was responsible for the decrease in SV during moderate-intensity exercise when Tsk was held at 38°C.
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - Category: Sports Medicine Tags: BASIC SCIENCES Source Type: research
Conclusions After accounting for baseline PA, greater positive changes in leisure-time PA levels were associated with a more eccentric-type of LV remodeling pattern over 10 yr. The clinical implications of such findings remain to be determined.
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - Category: Sports Medicine Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY Source Type: research
This study aimed to identify the characteristics of muscle stiffness in sprinters and long-distance runners, and to determine how muscle stiffness is related to the performance of these athletes. Methods In 22 male sprinters (SPR group), 22 male long-distance runners (LDR group), and 19 healthy untrained control male subjects (CON group), the muscle shear wave speed (a proxy for stiffness) of the vastus lateralis (VL) was measured under passive (resting) and active (contracting the knee extensors at 50% of maximal voluntary contraction) conditions, by using ultrasound shear wave elastography. Results The passive VL s...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research
Purpose Low-attenuation muscle (LAM) area at mid-thigh, a computed tomography (CT)–derived index of intramuscular lipids, is associated with insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. The present study aimed at testing the hypothesis that changes in LAM area in trunk muscles from a single abdominal scan could provide relevant information to evaluate the effects of a lifestyle intervention without the use of a mid-thigh CT scan. Methods Cardiometabolic risk variables, including waist circumference, lipoprotein–lipid profile, glucose tolerance, and cardiorespiratory fitness, were assessed in a sample ...
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research
Conclusion Although TVS is useful for screening for induction failure, this tool should not be used as an indication for cesarean section.Resumo Objetivo Nem sempre a indu ção do parto termina emparto vaginal, expondo tanto a mãe quanto o feto aos riscos inerentes ao procedimento de indução, ou a uma possível cesárea. A ultrassonografia transvaginal (UTV) semostrou interessante instrumento na predição da prematuridade e, neste estudo, utilizamos este instrume nto na situação inversa: indução do parto no pós-datismo. Mét...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetricia - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
Abstract Objective The present study was conducted with the objective of investigating the effectiveness of solution-focused group counseling (SFGC) on promoting the mental health of midwifery students. Methods The present study is an intervention-based study with a pretest, a post-test, and a control group. The statistical population included all of the midwifery students studying in the midwifery department of the Bam University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran, who filled out the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) in the screening phase. In the second phase, 40 individuals, having a low level of mental health based on ...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetricia - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
This study investigated whether periodontal treatment might improve glycemic control in patients with chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and which modality offers most benefit.BMC Oral Health
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Dental & Oral Health Journal Article Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: LL-37 concentrations were highest in patients with T2DM+CP when compared with controls. LL-37 was positively correlated with age. HNP 1-3 levels were increased in groups with DM when compared to the groups without periodontitis. The role of AMPs is vital in the immunoinflammatory response in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and DM. PMID: 31522161 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the International Academy of Periodontology - Category: Dentistry Tags: J Int Acad Periodontol Source Type: research
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