Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 638: Human Norovirus Cultivation in Nontransformed Stem Cell-Derived Human Intestinal Enteroid Cultures: Success and Challenges

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 638: Human Norovirus Cultivation in Nontransformed Stem Cell-Derived Human Intestinal Enteroid Cultures: Success and Challenges Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11070638 Authors: Mary K. Estes Khalil Ettayebi Victoria R. Tenge Kosuke Murakami Umesh Karandikar Shih-Ching Lin B. Vijayalakshmi Ayyar Nicolas W. Cortes-Penfield Kei Haga Frederick H. Neill Antone R. Opekun James R. Broughman Xi-Lei Zeng Sarah E. Blutt Sue E. Crawford Sasirekha Ramani David Y. Graham Robert L. Atmar Noroviruses, in the genus Norovirus, are a significant cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans and animals. For almost 50 years, the lack of a cultivation system for human noroviruses (HuNoVs) was a major barrier to understanding virus biology and the development of effective antiviral strategies. This review presents a historical perspective of the development of a cultivation system for HuNoVs in human intestinal epithelial cell cultures. Successful cultivation was based on the discovery of genetically-encoded host factors required for infection, knowledge of the site of infection in humans, and advances in the cultivation of human intestinal epithelial cells achieved by developmental and stem cell biologists. The human stem cell-derived enteroid cultivation system recapitulates the multicellular, physiologically active human intestinal epithelium, and allows studies of virus-specific replication requirements, evaluation of human host-pathogen int...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

Related Links:

Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Jiayin Chen, Xiyang Wu, Gloria Sánchez, Walter RandazzoAbstractBerries have frequently been cited as causing gastroenteritis and acute hepatitis outbreaks due to enteric virus contamination, including human norovirus and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Model experiments were performed to evaluate the potential use of viability RT-qPCR to assess the thermal inactivation of norovirus genotype I (GI), GII, and HAV on raspberries, blueberries and strawberries. Initially, two viability markers, platinum chloride and propidium monoazide (PMAxx™...
Source: Food Control - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Little is known about enteropathogen seroepidemiology among children in low-resource settings. We measured serological IgG responses to eight enteropathogens (Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, Salmonella enterica, enterotoxigenicEscherichia coli,Vibrio cholerae, Campylobacter jejuni, norovirus) in cohorts from Haiti, Kenya, and Tanzania. We studied antibody dynamics and force of infection across pathogens and cohorts. Enteropathogens shared common seroepidemiologic features that enabled between-pathogen comparisons of transmission. Overall, exposure was intense: for most pathogens the win...
Source: eLife - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Epidemiology and Global Health Source Type: research
Human norovirus is regarded as the leading cause of nonbacterial acute diarrhea in developing and developed countries. Among all genotypes, GII.4 has been the predominant genotype, but in East Asia, it was rep...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Abstract Multiplex PCR platforms have enhanced understanding of intestinal pathogens in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, few such studies have been performed in Latin America, where poverty, poor sanitation, and undernutrition persist. Multiplex PCR (BioFire, Salt Lake City, UT) was used to identify viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens in stool collected on day 1 and 31 from children aged 6 to 35 months with acute, non-bloody diarrhea in two locations (rural and urban) in Guatemala. We analyzed correlation between pathogens and clinical, demographic, and socioeconomic variables; described pa...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
ConclusionUnlike the alternating circulation of GII.4 and non-GII.4 NoV observed in 2016 or 2017, the genotype profile of NoV GII in 2018 was characterized by the co-prevalence of multiple recombinant genotypes. A recent increase in detection rate in less reported recombinant genotypes such as GII.P12/GII.3 and GII.P7/GII.6 among adult population calls for a continuing close monitoring on NoV GII genotypes in case of potential local outbreaks.
Source: Gut Pathogens - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
A sunburn may not be the only health consequence of your summer beach trips and pool days. A study published last year estimated that recreational water activities are related to 90 million illnesses each year in the U.S., with swimming as one of the primary catalysts of water-borne respiratory, ear and skin infections. Less frequently, according to federal data, pathogens found in pools, lakes, rivers and oceans can lead to more serious sickness, including gastrointestinal illnesses and—in very rare cases—exposure to flesh-eating bacteria. This month, for example, a Florida woman died from a flesh-eating bacte...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Infectious Disease Source Type: news
Authors: Lin L, Han J, Yan T, Li L, Li J, Ao Y, Duan Z, Hou Y Abstract Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a major cause of epidemic and sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Recently, human intestinal enteroids (HIEs) have been shown to support the replication of HuNoVs, and be an excellent model to study HuNoV-host interactions. We implemented the HIE system in our laboratory and investigated the global molecular events associated with the mechanism of HuNoV-host interactions. Successful replication was observed for several norovirus GII genotypes, and totally 5,376 genes with different expression in HIEs...
Source: American Journal of Translational Research - Category: Research Tags: Am J Transl Res Source Type: research
Authors: Monini M, Ostanello F, Vignolo E, Pagani E, Gamper S, Spertini S, Masi E, Rabini M, Stenico A, Poznanski E, Di Bartolo I Abstract In October 2017, two outbreaks of gastroenteritis (GE) occurred among patrons of a cafeteria in Italy in one week. Virological and bacteria investigations on stool samples, environment and food were conducted to identify the infectious agents and the possible source of infection. Forty-five cases occurred in the two outbreaks, including 13 laboratory-confirmed cases of norovirus GI. Nine staff members were interviewed, six were confirmed positive for NoV GI and 3 experienced GE ...
Source: New Microbiologica - Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research
Norovirus (NoV) is recognized as a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks in settings globally. Studies have shown that employees played an important role in the transmission mode during some N...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare thrombotic microangiopathy usually seen in infants and children below the age of 5  years. It usually follows a bout of bloody diarrhea caused by Shiga toxin producing E coli...
Source: BMC Nephrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Case report Source Type: research
More News: Biology | Cytology | Gastroenteritis | Gastroenterology | Genetics | History of Medicine | Norovirus | Stem Cell Therapy | Stem Cells | Study | Virology