The cumulative effect of inflammation and infection on structural lung disease in early cystic fibrosis

Introduction Pulmonary inflammation and infection are important clinical and prognostic markers of lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, whether in young children they are transient findings or have cumulative, long-term impacts on respiratory health is largely unknown. We aimed to determine whether their repeated detection has a deleterious effect on structural lung disease. Methods All patients aged
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: CF and non-CF bronchiectasis, Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Cystic fibrosis Source Type: research

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Publication date: September 2019Source: The Lancet Global Health, Volume 7, Issue 9Author(s): Raja Dhar, Sheetu Singh, Deepak Talwar, Murali Mohan, Surya Kant Tripathi, Rajesh Swarnakar, Sonali Trivedi, Srinivas Rajagopala, George D'Souza, Arjun Padmanabhan, Archana Baburao, Padukudru Anand Mahesh, Babaji Ghewade, Girija Nair, Aditya Jindal, Gayathri Devi H Jayadevappa, Honney Sawhney, Kripesh Ranjan Sarmah, Kaushik Saha, Suresh AnantharajSummaryBackgroundBronchiectasis is a common but neglected chronic lung disease. Most epidemiological data are limited to cohorts from Europe and the USA, with few data from low-income and...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
This review presents and discusses a new frontier for fast, risk-free and potentially inexpensive diagnostics of respiratory diseases by detecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in exhaled breath. One part of the review is a didactic presentation of the overlaying concept and the chemistry of exhaled breath. The other part discusses diverse sensors that have been developed and used for the detection of respiratory diseases (e.g. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, lung cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and pneumoconiosis) by analy...
Source: European Respiratory Review - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Pulmonary pharmacology and therapeutics Review Source Type: research
Santosh K. Ghosh1*, Thomas S. McCormick1,2 and Aaron Weinberg1* 1Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States 2Dermatology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States Human beta-defensins (hBDs, −1, 2, 3) are a family of epithelial cell derived antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that protect mucosal membranes from microbial challenges. In addition to their antimicrobial activities, they possess other functions; e.g., cell activation, proliferation, regulation of cytokine/chemokine production, migration, diffe...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Vincent Le Moigne1, Audrey Bernut2†, Mélanie Cortès3, Albertus Viljoen2, Christian Dupont2, Alexandre Pawlik4, Jean-Louis Gaillard1,5, Fabienne Misguich1, Frédéric Crémazy1*, Laurent Kremer2,6 and Jean-Louis Herrmann1,5* 12I, UVSQ, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, Versailles, France 2UMR 9004, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Recherche en Infectiologie de Montpellier, Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France 3VitamFero, Tours, France 4Unité de Pathogénomique Mycobactérienne, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusion Microorganisms are involved in many life activities, and affect their surrounding environment and other organisms. Microorganisms play important roles in human heath, crop growth, livestock farming, environmental management, industrial chemical production and food production. In the 19th century, people first observed microbes using microscopes and began to study them. However, the development of high-throughput sequencing technology has led to generation of large amounts of microbial related data. As a result, machine-learning methods are now being applied to microbiological research. Here, we discuss the curr...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study we found blocking autophagy led to increased CP growth in both macrophages and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. In vivo, loss of the autophagy elongation component ATG16L1 specifically in myeloid cells led to increased mortality in response to CP infection, characterized by greater numbers of neutrophils and dendritic cells, but no change in the CP burden in the lungs. This was accompanied by an increase in inflammasome-active macrophages and IL-1β production. While induction of autophagy in macrophages led to reduced CP growth in vitro, in vivo treatment with rapamycin led to increased mortality of infected...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study they also showed PTX3 localized in NETs formed after neutrophil activation (5). Proteomics analysis revealed that PTX3 forms complexes with two anti-microbial proteins [azurocidin (AZU1) and myeloperoxidase (MPO)] associated to NETs (30). More recently, PTX3 localization in NETs has been confirmed, and the colocalization with AZU1 and MPO has been defined more accurately (31). Further investigation will be needed to understand the involvement of PTX3 interaction with AZU1 and MPO in their antibacterial role during NET formation. Regulation of Complement Activation PTX3 interaction with microorganisms is not...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This article aims to review the basic MRI techniques, indications and terminologies used in chest imaging, with special emphasis on imaging findings of common pathologies in the pediatric population.
Source: Indian Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
ABSTRACTBronchiectasis has received increased attention recently, including an emphasis on preventing infective exacerbations that are associated with disease progression and lung function decline. While there are several bacteria and viruses associated with bronchiectasis, licensed vaccines are only currently available forStreptococcus pneumoniae,Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae protein D as a conjugate in a pneumococcal vaccine),Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bordetella pertussis and influenza virus. The evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of these vaccines in both preventing and managing bronchiectasis in chil...
Source: Respirology - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Invited Review Series: Paediatric and Adult Bronchiectasis Source Type: research
Authors: Khan S, Shahzadi A Abstract Cachexia not only has a dramatically harmful impact on a patient's life, but also a poor response to therapeutic agents. The purpose of the present review is to provide updated information concerning the pharmacokinetic aspects of drugs used to treat cardiopulmonary cachexia in patients with no signs of hepatic or renal pathology. A systematic search of PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials, Science Direct, and Clinical Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov), encompassing the period between 2000 and 2017, was conducted in accordance to PRISMA guidelines. Seven st...
Source: Drug Metabolism Reviews - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Metab Rev Source Type: research
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