Crohn's Disease and the Risk of Cancer

This article reviews the current literature regarding Crohn's disease and subsequent risk of cancer formation. Recognition of risk factors (both modifiable and unmodifiable) is essential for prevention and appropriate screening. Future investigations into the molecular mechanisms associated with Crohn-related malignancy will provide additional insight into carcinogenesis, potential for early intervention, and identification of at-risk patients. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

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Abstract Patients with long-standing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involving at least 1/3 of the colon are at increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). Advancements in CRC screening and surveillance and improved treatment of IBD has reduced CRC incidence in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis. Most cases of CRC are thought to arise from dysplasia, and recent evidence suggests that the majority of dysplastic lesions in patients with IBD are visible, in part thanks to advancements in high definition colonoscopy and chromoendoscopy. Recent practice guidelines have supported the use of chromoendo...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Abstract Estrogens play important roles in the development and progression of multiple tumor types. Accumulating evidence points to the significance of estrogen action not only in tumors of hormonally regulated tissues such as the breast, endometrium and ovary, but also in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). The effects of estrogens in physiological and pathophysiological conditions are mediated by the nuclear estrogen receptors α and β, as well as the membrane-bound G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). The roles of GPER in CRC development and progression, however, remain poorly understoo...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Authors: El-Salhy M, Gilja OH, Hatlebakk JG Abstract Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) overlap. It is not clear whether GERD is caused by non‑erosive esophagitis, or erosive esophagitis. The Rome criteria are not widely used for the diagnosis of IBS in the clinic. In total, 1,489 IBS patients without red flags were included in the present retrospective study. They comprised of 1,331 females and 158 males with a mean age of 51 years. The diagnosis of IBS was verified by endoscopic and histopathological examinations. Whereas erosive esophagitis occurred in 97% of patient...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: It is challenging to distinguish intestinal tuberculosis from Crohn's disease due to dynamic changes in epidemiology and similar clinical characteristics. Recent studies have shown that polymorphisms in genes involved in the interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 axis may affect intestinal mucosal immunity by affecting the differentiation of Th17 cells. AIM: To investigate the specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the IL-23/IL-17 axis and possible pathways that affect susceptibility to intestinal tuberculosis and Crohn's disease. METHODS: We analysed 133 patients wi...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Discussion MDSCs violently emerge in pathological conditions in an attempt to limit potentially harmful immune and inflammatory responses. Mechanisms supporting their expansion and survival are deeply investigated in cancer, in the perspective to reactivate specific antitumor responses and prevent their contribution to disease evolution. These findings will likely contribute to improve the targeting of MDSCs in anticancer immunotherapies, either alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. New evidence indicates that the expansion of myeloid cell differentiation in pathology is subject to fine-tuning, as its...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Alessandro Poggi1*, Roberto Benelli2, Roberta Venè1, Delfina Costa1, Nicoletta Ferrari1, Francesca Tosetti1 and Maria Raffaella Zocchi3 1Molecular Oncology and Angiogenesis Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 2Immunology Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 3Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy It is well established that natural killer (NK) cells are involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Indeed, they can recognize molecules induced at the cell surface by stress signals ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Gulcin Tezcan1, Ekaterina V. Martynova1, Zarema E. Gilazieva1, Alan McIntyre2, Albert A. Rizvanov1 and Svetlana F. Khaiboullina1,3* 1Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia 2Centre for Cancer Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, NV, United States Inflammation has a crucial role in protection against various pathogens. The inflammasome is an intracellular multiprotein signaling complex that is linked to pathogen sensing and...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In conclusion, the results improve our understanding on the characteristics of lncRNAs and mRNAs on regulating host immune response against C. perfringens type C infection, which will provide a reference for future research into exploring C. perfringens-related diseases in human. Introduction Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is a Gram-positive anaerobic rod and ranks as the second most common bacteria that causes fulminant, fatal infectious and immune diseases (Scharff, 2012; Grass et al., 2013). These diseases are characterized by fever, pain, gas production, local edema, and severe tissue destruction, the...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions This review describes how leukocyte-heparanase can be a double-edged sword in tumor progression; it can enhance tumor immune surveillance and tumor cell clearance, but also promote tumor survival and growth. We also discuss the potential of using heparanase in leukocyte therapies against tumors, and the effects of heparanase inhibitors on tumor progression and immunity. We are just beginning to understand the influence of heparanase on a pro/anti-tumor immune response, and there are still many questions to answer. How do the pro/anti-tumorigenic effects of heparanase differ across different cancer types? Does...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, IL‑18 served a dual function in colitis by regulating the function of goblet cells. The anti‑inflammatory effects of IL‑18 were observed in the early stage of colitis‑induced inflammation, while the pro‑inflammatory effects were observed in the later stages of the disease. PMID: 31017261 [PubMed - in process]
Source: International Journal of Molecular Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Int J Mol Med Source Type: research
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