Cardiopulmonary and Muscular Interactions: Potential Implications for Exercise (In)tolerance in Symptomatic Smokers Without Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Smoking and physical inactivity are important preventable causes of disability and early death worldwide. Reduced exercise tolerance has been described in smokers, even in those who do not fulfil the extant physiological criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and are not particularly sedentary. In this context, it is widely accepted that exercise capacity depends on complex cardio-pulmonary interactions which support oxygen (O2) delivery to muscle mitochondria. Although peripheral muscular factors, O2 transport disturbances (including the effects of increased carboxyhemoglobin), and autonomic nervous system unbalance have been emphasized, other derangements have been more recently described, including: early microscopic emphysema, pulmonary microvascular disease, ventilatory and gas exchange inefficiency, and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Using an integrative physiological approach, the present review summarizes the recent advances in knowledge on the effects of smoking on the lung-heart-muscle axis under the stress of exercise. Special attention is given to the mechanisms connecting physiological abnormalities such as early cardio-pulmonary derangements, inadequate oxygen delivery, and utilization and generalized bioenergetic disturbances at the muscular level with the negative sensations (sense of heightened muscle effort and breathlessness) that may decrease the tolerance of smokers to physical exercise. A deeper understanding of the systemic e...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research

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Discussion Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a rare disorder. It is usually considered an autosomal recessive disorder but there is significant intra-familial variability. There are multiple genes (~20 currently) involved and it is believed that the phenotypic variability is due to “…differences in the total mutational load across different BBS associated genes….” It is a ciliopathy where mutation changes in proteins in the cilias causes problems in the cilia’s functioning particularly signaling. Cilia are important in signaling to maintain tissue and cellular homeostasis. Obviously screening o...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
As I write this post today, yet again there are new theories being proposed for that most common of experiences: pain. Not only theoretical controversies, but even the definition of pain is being debated – is pain an “aversive” experience? An aversive sensory and emotional experience typically caused by, or resembling that caused by, actual or potential tissue injury. Some researchers have recently “found” a new nociceptive fibre (though they persist in calling it a “pain fibre” – once again perpetuating the idea that pain is one and the same with nociception). One of the ...
Source: HealthSkills Weblog - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Chronic pain Pain conditions Research Resilience/Health Science in practice definition disability living well persistent pain Source Type: blogs
(Natural News) Let your sweet tooth rejoice: Eating dark chocolate is good for your cardiovascular health, says a recent study in the journal Nutrition. The research, a collaboration between the Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra (IPC) in Portugal and the University of Gothenburg in Sweden, revealed that just a few squares of dark chocolate – in particular, those with 90 percent cocoa content – can...
Source: NaturalNews.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: Respiratory Physiology &NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Miao Zhou, Li Jiao, Yuanyuan LiuAbstractImbalance between inflammatory Th17 cells and immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Treg) contributes to the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aims to investigate roles and mechanisms of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) in airway inflammation and Th17/Treg differentiation in COPD. sFRP2 was significantly upregulated in the serum of patients with COPD and in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells that were exposed to cigarette smoke extra...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
Authors: Suo DM, Liu LL, Jia K, Zhang LJ, Li LM, Wang J, Qi Y, Liu HJ, Wan CX, Yang L Abstract OBJECTIVE: To provide detailed data on the effects of multidisciplinary rehabilitation for patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with moderate to severe disability. DESIGN: A pilot randomized control study. SUBJECTS/PATIENTS: A total of 39 patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder were randomized into intervention or control groups. METHODS: The intervention group received multidisciplinary rehabilitation 5 times/week for 4 weeks in a hospital, and the patients were guided to continue...
Source: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: J Rehabil Med Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: IDCasesAuthor(s): Mohamadreza Salehi, Sahar Shadvar, Mohammad Sadeghian, Mahsa Doomanlou, Alireza Abdollahi, Seyed Ali Dehghan Manshadi, Akram Sardari, Hossein Ali Rahdar, Mohammad Mehdi FeizabadiAbstractAeromonas salmonicida (A. salmonicida) is a facultative Gram-negative bacillus, inhabiting in water. It is a common source of furunculosis and septicemia in fish. Report on the human infection with this organism is rare. A male farmer referred with weakness and intermittent fever. He had cardiac valves’ regurgitation due to fever with rheumatic heart disease. H...
Source: IDCases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
(Natural News) Regular physical exercise offers many health benefits. But even something as simple as 10 minutes of brisk walking daily can help prevent disability in older adults with arthritis pain. According to a study published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, brisk walking can also help lower their risk of suffering from pain or stiffness in...
Source: NaturalNews.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Photo credit Todd Cravens Dear Carol: My mom is 85 and has lived with COPD, diabetes, and heart disease for the last ten years, but she’s been a fighter. She’s always said that she didn’t want extreme measures to keep her alive when her time to go was obvious, and I agreed, but now that the end seems close I think that she should fight longer. She qualifies for hospice, but hospice means that she must stop the medications that are keeping her alive. Mom says that she’s fought long enough and she’s done with that. She just wants comfort for as long as she has left. It’s true that I h...
Source: Minding Our Elders - Category: Geriatrics Authors: Source Type: blogs
Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 188Author(s): Felicia W. Chu, Kristy vanMarle, Mary K. Hoard, Lara Nugent, John E. Scofield, David C. GearyAbstractIn a preschool through first grade longitudinal study, we identified groups of children with persistently low mathematics achievement (n = 14) and children with low achievement in preschool but average achievement in first grade (n = 23). The preschool quantitative developments of these respective groups of children with mathematical learning disability (MLD) and recovered children and a group of typically achieving...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - Category: Child Development Source Type: research
Conclusions: Alterations to RV structure may represent a mechanism by which long-term PM10–2.5 exposure increases risks for adverse respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes, especially among certain susceptible populations. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP658 Received: 14 June 2016 Revised: 24 February 2017 Accepted: 16 March 2017 Published: 27 July 2017 Address correspondence to S. D. Adar, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, SPH II-5539, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA. Telephone: (734) 615-9207; Email: sadar@umich.edu Supplemental Material is available online (https://doi.org/10.1289/E...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
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