Affective biases and their interaction with other reward-related deficits in rodent models of psychiatric disorders.

Affective biases and their interaction with other reward-related deficits in rodent models of psychiatric disorders. Behav Brain Res. 2019 Jul 02;:112051 Authors: Lewis LR, Benn A, Dwyer DM, Robinson ESJ Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the leading global causes of disability. Symptoms of MDD can vary person to person, and current treatments often fail to alleviate the poor quality of life that patients experience. One of the two, core diagnostic criteria for MDD is the loss of interest in previously pleasurable activities, which suggests a link between the disease aetiology and reward processing. Cognitive impairments are also common in patients with MDD, and more recently, emotional processing deficits known as affective biases have been recognised as a key feature of the disorder. Studies in animals have found similar affective biases related to reward. In this review we consider these affective biases in the context of other reward-related deficits and examine how affective biases associated with learning and memory may interact with the wider behavioural symptoms seen in MDD. We discuss recent developments in how analogues of affective biases and other aspects of reward processing can be assessed in rodents, as well as how these behaviours are influenced in models of MDD. We subsequently discuss evidence for the neurobiological mechanisms contributing to one or more reward-related deficits in preclinical models of MDD, identified u...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

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Global burden of disease 2010 ranked major depressive disorder as a leading worldwide contributor to years of life lived with disability.1 Between 1990 and 2010 depression's contribution to global disability increased substantially due to population growth and notably to aging. Late-life depression (LLD) is now a major public health concern with nearly 5 million sufferers in America alone. LLD also heightens the risk for medical comorbidities, cognitive decline, poor quality of life, caregiver burden, premature mortality and suicides.
Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry - Category: Geriatrics Authors: Tags: Invited Perspective Source Type: research
Abstract PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of upper extremity musculoskeletal (MSK) diseases and to identify factors influencing disability among fruit tree farmers in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of the 1150 subjects of the Namgaram study, 460 fruit tree farmers completed a questionnaire and underwent clinical evaluations, including physical assessments, laboratory tests, simple radiographic examinations, and magnetic resonance imaging studies of the upper extremities. Disability was assessed using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand outcome measure. Data were analyzed...
Source: Yonsei Medical Journal - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Yonsei Med J Source Type: research
ConclusionsNo support was found for an association between actigraphically measured sedentary time and mental health or cognition. All observed associations were explained by confounders, in particular, disability, occupational status and smoking. The previously reported association between sitting time and mental health might reflect residual confounding, bias of subjective measures, or the social context of sedentary behavior.
Source: Mental Health and Physical Activity - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
Children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may be at higher risk for psychiatric disorders and suicide attempt, according to a large, population-basedstudy published inJAMA Pediatrics.The risk for psychiatric disorders and suicide among children with IBD was greater when compared with siblings without IBD, indicating that the risk is likely related to IBD itself and not to genetic or environmental factors shared with siblings."Particularly concerning is the increased risk of suicide attempt," wrote Agnieszka Butwicka, M.D., Ph.D., of the Karolinska Institute in Sweden and colleagues. "Long-term psycholog...
Source: Psychiatr News - Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADHD anxiety autism Crohn's disease IBD inflammatory bowel disease mood disorders personality disorders suicide ulcerative colitis Source Type: research
Objectives: (1) To assess the correlation of psychosocial factors and long-term outcomes of proximal humerus fractures all in surgical repair; (2) to identify specific psychosocial factors with favorable and unfavorable outcomes; and (3) to assess the correlation between DSM-V mental health diagnoses and long-term Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Academic medical center. Patients: Patients were screened and identified on presentation to the emergency department or in the clinical office for inclusion in an institutional review board–approved ...
Source: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
To evaluate the associations between BADL/IADL disability and depressive symptoms from the perspective of gender among older adults in China.
Source: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing - Category: Nursing Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions The perceived participation of our respondents is relatively optimistic. Physical health along with mental and social status can affect participation. Tailored strategies should be implemented early in the rehabilitation phase to promote stoke survivors' participation in all the domains. Implications for rehabilitation Although the overall perceived participation of young and middle-aged stroke patients was fair to good, attention should be paid to their family roles. The strategies should be mainly focused on reducing the stroke severity to improve patients' participation. Improving patients' depressive sympto...
Source: Disability and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Tags: Disabil Rehabil Source Type: research
 Schizophrenia does not just affect the person with schizophrenia, but their families, also. This episode of Inside Schizophrenia explores the family relationships impacted by schizophrenia, both immediate and extended.  Two guests join us. The first is Chrisa Hickey, who is the mother of an adult son with schizophrenia and started an online site for parents of children who have a severe mental illness. The other guest, interviewed by co-host Gabe Howard, is Janel Star Withers, mother of host Rachel Star Withers. Janel shares her experiences with raising a schizophrenic daughter.  Host Rachel Star Withers, a d...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Children and Teens Family Inside Schizophrenia Parenting Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia Family Mental Health family mental illness Helping Families in Mental Health Crisis life with schizophrenia Mental Disorder Mental illness and Source Type: blogs
  Schizophrenia does not just affect the person with schizophrenia, but their families, also. This episode of Inside Schizophrenia explores the family relationships impacted by schizophrenia, both immediate and extended.  Two guests join us. The first is Chrisa Hickey, who is the mother of an adult son with schizophrenia and started an online site for parents of children who have a severe mental illness. The other guest, interviewed by co-host Gabe Howard, is Janel Star Withers, mother of host Rachel Star Withers. Janel shares her experiences with raising a schizophrenic daughter.  Host Rachel Star Withers, ...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Children and Teens Family General Inside Schizophrenia Mental Health and Wellness Parenting Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia Family Mental Health family mental illness Helping Families in Mental Health Crisis life with schizophrenia Source Type: blogs
Authors: Bayoumi AB, Ikizgul O, Karaali CN, Bozkurt S, Konya D, Toktas ZO Abstract Antidepressant drugs can be advantageous in treating psychiatric and non-psychiatric illnesses, including spinal disorders. However, spine surgeons remain unfamiliar with the advantages and disadvantages of the use of antidepressant drugs as a part of the medical management of diseases of the spine. Our review article describes a systematic method using the PubMed/Medline database with a specific set of keywords to identify such benefits and drawbacks based on 17 original relevant articles published between January 2000 and February ...
Source: Asian Spine Journal - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Asian Spine J Source Type: research
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