Translating Recent Microbiome Insights in Otitis Media into Probiotic Strategies.

Translating Recent Microbiome Insights in Otitis Media into Probiotic Strategies. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2019 Sep 18;32(4): Authors: van den Broek MFL, De Boeck I, Kiekens F, Boudewyns A, Vanderveken OM, Lebeer S Abstract SUMMARYThe microbiota of the upper respiratory tract (URT) protects the host from bacterial pathogenic colonization by competing for adherence to epithelial cells and by immune response regulation that includes the activation of antimicrobial and (anti-)inflammatory components. However, environmental or host factors can modify the microbiota to an unstable community that predisposes the host to infection or inflammation. One of the URT diseases most often encountered in children is otitis media (OM). The role of pathogenic bacteria like Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in the pathogenesis of OM is well documented. Results from next-generation-sequencing (NGS) studies reveal other bacterial taxa involved in OM, such as Turicella and Alloiococcus Such studies can also identify bacterial taxa that are potentially protective against URT infections, whose beneficial action needs to be substantiated in relevant experimental models and clinical trials. Of note, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are members of the URT microbiota and associated with a URT ecosystem that is deemed healthy, based on NGS and some experimental and clinical studies. These observations have formed the basis of this review, in which we ...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research

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Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a pathogen known for being a frequent cause of acute otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In the present study, a vaccine antigen based on the fusion of two known NTHi adhesive proteins, protein E (PE) and a pilin subunit (PilA), was developed. The quality of the combined antigen was investigated through functional, biophysical, and structural analyses. It was shown that the PE and PilA individual structures are not modified in the PE-PilA fusion and that PE-PilA assembles as a dimer in solution, reflecti...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Microbial Immunity and Vaccines Source Type: research
PE-PilA is a fusion protein composed of immunologically relevant parts of protein E (PE) and the majority subunit of the type IV pilus (PilA), two major antigens of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Here we report on the preclinical evaluation of PE-PilA as a vaccine antigen. The immunogenic potential of the PE and PilA within the fusion was compared with that of isolated PE and PilA antigens. When injected intramuscularly into mice, the immunogenicity of PE within the fusion was equivalent to that of isolated PE, except when it was formulated with alum. In contrast, in our murine models PilA was consistently foun...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Microbial Immunity and Vaccines Source Type: research
Vaccinations with the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PHiD-CV) started in Iceland in 2011. Protein D (PD) from H. influenzae, which is coded for by the hpd gene, is used as a conjugate in the vaccine and may provide protection against PD-positive H. influenzae. We aimed to evaluate the effect of PHiD-CV vaccination on H. influenzae in children, both in carriage and in acute otitis media (AOM). H. influenzae was isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs collected from healthy children attending 15 day care centers in 2009 and from 2012 to 2017 and from middle ear (ME) samples from children with AOM collected from 2012 t...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Administration of the licenced CRM197-PCV7 and PHiD-CV10 during early infancy is associated with large relative risk reductions in pneumococcal AOM. However, the effects of these vaccines on all-cause AOM is far more uncertain. We found no evidence of a beneficial effect on all-cause AOM of administering PCVs in high-risk infants, after early infancy (i.e. in children one year and above), and in older children with a history of respiratory illness. Compared to control vaccines, PCVs were associated with an increase in mild local reactions (redness, swelling), fever, and pain and/or tenderness. We found no evid...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
The objective of this review article is to discuss our current understanding about the mechanisms through which otopathogens escape host immunity to induce OM. A better knowledge about the molecular mechanisms leading to subversion of host immune responses will provide novel clues to develop effective treatment modalities for OM. PMID: 31075181 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research
Discussion This case demonstrates successful cure of pre-B-ALL complicating XLA by alloSCT with restoration of B-cell development and functional antibody response. We are aware of only one previous case of pre-B-ALL in an XLA patient (21), which suggests that human BTK deficiency in itself does not predispose to pre-B-ALL. However, there are data to suggest that BTK may act as a tumor suppressor, and BTK deficiency may predispose to tumor development following a “second hit.” Mice with a genetic deficiency in Slp65, a gene encoding an adaptor protein that functions together with BTK, have a block in progenito...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series The Bakaletz laboratory ’ s research focus is attempting to understand the pathogenic mechanisms operational in the highly prevalent pediatric disease, otitis media (OM) (or middle ear infection). Specifically, we are interested in elucidating how upper respiratory tract viruses predispose the middle ear to invasion by any of the three predominant bacterial pathogens of OM (nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae). We are also interested in understanding how bacterial biofilms contribute to the recurrence and chronicity o...
Source: Videocast - All Events - Category: General Medicine Tags: Upcoming Events Source Type: video
In this study we sought to ascertain the in vivo efficacy of aminomethyl spectinomycin lead 1950, an effective antibacterial agent both in vitro and in vivo, against Streptococcus pneumoniae, in the context of complex respiratory infections and acute otitis media. A single dose of 1950 significantly reduced bacterial burden in the respiratory tract for all three pathogens, even when species were present in a co-infection model. Additionally, a single dose of 1950 effectively reduced pneumococcal acute otitis media from the middle ear. 1950 also proved efficacious in the context of influenza-pneumococcal super infection. Th...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
​Conjunctivitis is a common condition and easy enough to treat, but several uncommon conjunctivitis syndromes require more care and should not be missed.Conjunctivitis is either infectious (viral or bacterial) or noninfectious (allergic or nonallergic). Viral infections are more common in adults, bacterial ones in children, usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Adults tend to have more S. aureus infections, while the other pathogens are more common in children. An adenovirus is typically responsible for viral-associated infections in conjunct...
Source: M2E Too! Mellick's Multimedia EduBlog - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Blog Posts Source Type: blogs
ConclusionsAny difference in price between PHiD-CV and PCV13 is expected to be the key driver of vaccine choice for preventing childhood pneumococcal disease in Turkey. At price parity, PHiD-CV use is likely to be a dominant strategy over the use of PCV13.
Source: Value in Health Regional Issues - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
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