Analysis of Racial Differences in Hospital Stays in the Presence of Geographic Confounding
Publication date: Available online 5 July 2019Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal EpidemiologyAuthor(s): Melanie L. Davis, Brian Neelon, Paul J. Nietert, Lane F. Burgette, Kelly J. Hunt, Andrew B. Lawson, Leonard E. EgedeAbstractUsing recent methods for spatial propensity score modeling, we examine differences in hospital stays between non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white veterans with type 2 diabetes. We augment a traditional patient-level propensity score model with a spatial random effect to create a matched sample based on the estimated propensity score. We then use a spatial negative binomial hurdle model to estimate differences in both hospital admissions and inpatient days. We demonstrate that in the presence of unmeasured geographic confounding, spatial propensity score matching in addition to the spatial negative binomial hurdle outcome model yields improved performance compared to the outcome model alone. In the motivating application, we construct three estimates of racial differences in hospitalizations: the risk difference in admission, the mean difference in number of inpatient days among those hospitalized, and the mean difference in number of inpatient days across all patients (hospitalized and non-hospitalized). Results indicate that non-Hispanic black veterans with type 2 diabetes have a lower risk of hospital admission and a greater number of inpatient days on average. The latter result is especially important considering that we observed much smaller ...
We describe evidence for substance use as a risk factor for new-onset diabetes, prevalence of use in people with diabetes, evidence linking substance use with diabetes-related health outcomes, and evidence on the management of these co-occurring conditions.
ConclusionSilent myocardial ischemia is highly prevalent at about one in four asymptomatic diabetic patients. An increased CIMT can be a surrogate marker of higher coronary risk amongst these asymptomatic diabetics.
Conclusions: Based on an assessment of several glycemic outcomes, moderate-quality evidence shows that flash glucose monitoring improves diabetes management among adults with well-controlled type 1 diabetes and adults with type 2 diabetes requiring intensive insulin therapy. We estimate that publicly funding flash glucose monitoring in Ontario for people with type 1 diabetes and for people with type 2 diabetes requiring intensive insulin therapy who are eligible for coverage under the Ontario Drug Benefit program would result in additional costs of between $14.6 million and $38.6 million annually over the next 5 years. Adu...
TYPE 2 diabetes is a lifelong condition that requires careful monitoring to stave off the risks posed by high blood sugar levels. It is therefore imperative to recognise the warning signs so that you can take steps to keep blood sugar in check. One lesser-known warning sign of type 2 diabetes is associated with the ear.
ConclusionsAvailable data do not support the hypothesis of an association of DPP4i treatment with malignancies, with a possible beneficial effect for colon-rectal cancer.
AbstractPurpose of ReviewType 2 diabetes (T2DM) presents a growing global health and economic burden. Dental settings have been employed to identify individuals who may be at high risk of diabetes, who exhibit non-diabetic hyperglycaemia (NDH – also termed “prediabetes”) and who already unknowingly have the condition, through the use of targeted risk-assessments. This review aims to synthesize the existing literature supporting dental teams’ identification of individuals at an increased risk of or suffering from undiagnosed NDH o r T2DM in dental specialist care settings.Recent FindingsElectronic da...
Conclusions: PEG-HCC can improve some parameters of disease in these models and this may be due to a resulting increase in peripheral insulin sensitivity. However, additional studies are needed to elucidate how PEG-HCCs are producing these effects. PMID: 31937152 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
CONCLUSION: It is very important for public health that the current EU standards for rkedly lowered so that health risks can be further reduced, in accordance with the recommendations of the WHO. PMID: 31941576 [PubMed - in process]
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that several adverse psychosocial risk factors are independently associated with the onset of noncommunicable diseases.