Pioneering Stem Cell-Based Transplant Technology Is Being Developed And Tested On New Organs And Tissues
Surgeon Paolo Macchiarini has made his name by successfully transplanting bioengineered stem cell-based trachea, composed of both artificial and biological material. He now plans to use the technique to recreate more complex tissues, such as the oesophagus and diaphragm or organs such as the heart and lungs. He has also made an experimental attempt to regenerate brain in mice and rats. This is part of the news he presented during his seminar at the scientific AAAS Annual Meeting in Boston...
This study demonstrates that small peptide domains derived from native protein amelogenin can be utilized to construct a mineral layer on damaged human enamel in vitro. Six groups were prepared to carry out remineralization on artificially created lesions on enamel: (1) no treatment, (2) Ca2+ and PO43- only, (3) 1100 ppm fluoride (F), (4) 20 000 ppm F, (5) 1100 ppm F and peptide, and (6) peptide alone. While the 1100 ppm F sample (indicative of common F content of toothpaste for homecare) did not deliver F to the thinly deposited mineral layer, high F test sample (indicative of clinical varnish treatment) formed mainly C...
We describe our unique approach of aiming for ASCT one year after HT so that patients can remain in hematological remission with current chemotherapy and to allow patients complete recovery from OHT.
Heart transplantation remains the standard treatment for end stage heart failure patients. However, hemodynamic instability after brain death (BD) could affect posttransplant graft function. Conditioned medium (CM) from bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was found to protect the myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion (IR), this finding appears to be mediated via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) signalling. We hypothesized that CM added to a preservation solution (Custodiol) improves in vivo left ventricular (LV) graft function after transplantation.
Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has emerged as a modern preservation technique developed to evaluate candidate donor lungs in a normothermic and metabolically active state. Donor leukocytes are linked to the development of transplant related ischemia reperfusion injury, primary graft dysfunction, and acute rejection. Pharmacologic strategies to enhance donor leukocyte depletion during EVLP have not yet been described. Plerixafor (Mozobil) is a clinically available CXCR4 receptor antagonist, which disrupts the interaction between CXCR4 and SDF-1 α and facilitates mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells into peripheral circulation.
For clinical application of cardiomyocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-CM), immunological response to transplants should be great concern; however, innate immunological response after in vivo transplantation has not been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that natural killer cells (NKCs) may play an important role in innate immune rejection to transplanted iPSC-CMs.
Contraction of interventricular septum (IVS) is an important component of right ventricular (RV) function. We investigated the effects of IVS stem cell injections on RV function in patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).
Introduction: Respiratory complications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT), both allogeneic and autologous, comprise the majority of its morbidity and mortality. Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease (cGVHD) is a multisystem disorder that is a common complication of allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS) considered part of the spectrum of cGVHD pulmonary manifestations, affect 5.5% of transplant recipients. The prognosis of BOS remains poor.
Pulmonary graft versus host disease (GVHD), manifest as bronchiolitis obliterans, bronchiectasis and pulmonary fibrosis, is a serious complication of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) causing respiratory failure and death. There are limited therapeutic options for severe cases other than lung transplantation (LTx) but
CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that, when posaconazole is co-administered, the dosage of sirolimus and tacrolimus should be reduced by 60%-70% and for cyclosporine and by 30%-40% following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell and solid-organ transplantation. PMID: 29603686 [PubMed - in process]
In conclusion, senescence of vascular cells promotes the development of age-related disorders, including heart failure, diabetes, and atherosclerotic diseases, while suppression of vascular cell senescence ameliorates phenotypic features of aging in various models. Recent findings have indicated that specific depletion of senescent cells reverses age-related changes. Although the biological networks contributing to maintenance of homeostasis are extremely complex, it seems reasonable to explore senolytic agents that can act on specific cellular components or tissues. Several clinical trials of senolytic agents are currentl...