The Insula: A Brain Stimulation Target for the Treatment of Addiction

Substance use disorders (SUDs) are a growing public health concern with only a limited number of approved treatments. However, even approved treatments are subject to limited efficacy with high long-term relapse rates. Current treatment approaches are typically a combination of pharmacotherapies and behavioral counselling. Growing evidence and technological advances suggest the potential of brain stimulation techniques for the treatment of SUDs. There are three main brain stimulation techniques that are outlined in this review: transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and deep brain stimulation (DBS). The insula, a region of the cerebral cortex, is known to be involved in critical aspects underlying SUDs, such as interoception, decision making, anxiety, pain perception, cognition, mood, threat recognition and conscious urges. This review focuses on both the preclinical and clinical evidence demonstrating the role of the insula in addiction, thereby demonstrating its promise as a target for brain stimulation. Future research should evaluate the optimal parameters for brain stimulation of the insula, through the use of relevant biomarkers and clinical outcomes for SUDs.
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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Source: Cliffside Malibu - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Addiction Recovery Detox Resources for Alcohol and Drugs/Opiates drug detox medical detox medicated-assisted detox opioid opioids prescription drug detox withdrawal withdrawal symptoms Source Type: blogs
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Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
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Source: Cliffside Malibu - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Addiction Recovery Drug Rehab Information Drug Treatment Painkiller drug detox prescription drug abuse prescription drug abuse prevention and treatment act prescription drug addiction prescription drug detox prescription drugs prescrip Source Type: blogs
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Source: Psychiatr News - Category: Psychiatry Tags: buprenorphine extended-release Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment patient satisfaction quality of life Walter Ling Well-Being Source Type: research
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Source: Cliffside Malibu - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Addiction Addiction to Pharmaceuticals Heroin Addiction Recovery opioid opioid crisis opioids pharmaceutical addiction pharmaceutical drug abuse treatment pharmacists Source Type: blogs
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Source: Neuron - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Noninvasive ventilatory support Source Type: research
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Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Brain and Behavior Disorders General Inside Schizophrenia Mental Health and Wellness Active psychosis Delusions Delusions Hallucinations Living with Schizoprenia Mental Disorder Mental Illness Psychology psychotic Psychotic Break Source Type: blogs
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Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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