More HPV vaccinations could prevent cancer in 1,300 Californians

FINDINGSBased on a 2017 rate of vaccination against HPV among a group of California 20-year-olds, researchers estimate that this group is at risk for an excess of 1,352 cases of cancer that could be prevented with a 99.5% vaccination rate. Treatment for these preventable cancers would cost the health care system $52.2 million. The size of the group was 296,525 people, the approximate number of 20-year-olds in California in 2017.BACKGROUNDHuman papillomavirus, or HPV, is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States and is linked to seven types of cancer: cervical, vaginal, vulvar, penile, rectal, anal and oropharyngeal, or throat. There are more than 150 types of HPV, and an estimated 80% to 90% of sexually active people will be infected with one of those types during their lifetime. Short-term HPV infections are common, particularly in sexually active young people, and usually clear up on their own. Infections that persist for several years pose a cancer risk. HPV-related cancers can take 10 to 30 years to develop.METHODThe researchers estimated the number of HPV-related cancer cases and associated medical costs among all California ’s 20-year-olds. Using vaccine coverage rates from 2017 (60.9% for adolescent girls, 46.3% for adolescent boys), they estimated the lifetime number of cancer cases caused by vaccine-preventable HPV strains among this group. They also estimated the excess cancer cases that would occur based on the 2017 vaccination rate ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Authors: Musio F Abstract INTRODUCTION: Anemia has and will continue to be a central theme in medicine particularly as clinicians are treating a burgeoning population of complex multi-organ system processes. As a result of multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs), meta-analyses, and societal recommendations overly restrictive paradigms and under-administration of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) have likely been followed by clinicians among all specialties. AREAS COVERED: A review of anemia in the context of chronic kidney disease, hematologic malignancies and cancer is presented with focus on the e...
Source: Expert Review of Hematology - Category: Hematology Tags: Expert Rev Hematol Source Type: research
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Source: Urology Case Reports - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
Authors: Matti B, Zargar-Shoshtari K Abstract Prostate cancer represents a significant health burden worldwide. The cancer incidence had substantially increased since the introduction of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in cancer screening. This had led to considerable debates among health professionals and epidemiologists, since PSA as a screening tool seemed to be far from perfect. In New Zealand, the controversy was quite prominent in the last three decades, with some advocating the benefits of screening, while others concerned regarding the risk of harms. With the absence of an organised screening programme and ...
Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
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Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
Authors: Zarrabi A, Mark S PMID: 33032299 [PubMed - in process]
Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
Authors: Peng C, Cohen DJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Esophageal squamous cancer remains an important cause of mortality worldwide with two new immunotherapy drugs recently approved for metastatic disease. AREAS COVERED: The authors review the epidemiology and genomics of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. They also examine prior trials involving targeted agents under investigation as well immunotherapies that have been approved and novel combinations. EXPERT OPINION: Great advances have been made in characterizing the molecular changes in esophageal carcinoma. However, relatively few drugs have shown benefit i...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research
This article summarizes the rationale for, and development of CDK inhibitors in melanoma, with their evolution from pan-CDK inhibitors to highly specific agents, throughout clinical trials and finally their potential future use. EXPERT OPINION: Whilst CDK inhibitors have been practice changing in breast cancer management, their efficacy is yet to be proven in melanoma. Combination with BRAF/MEK inhibitors has been hindered by dose-limiting toxicities, but their role may yet to be found within the spectrum of biomarker-derived personalized melanoma management. The effect that CDK inhibitors can have as an adjunct to imm...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research
Abstract Trace metals concentrations of 25 elements were determined for 22 subcomponents of biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste samples representing the United States municipal solid waste (MSW) stream collected during three separate waste sorts. The subcomponent trace metal concentrations and estimated composition results were used to predict trace metal concentrations present in the overall MSW stream along with MSW compost and waste to energy (WTE) ash, which were compared to health-based standards (i.e., US EPA regional screening levels) and to values previously reported in the literature. These estimate...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
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Source: Pathology Research and Practice - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
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