A systematic literature review of the effect of insulin sensitizers on the cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease in transgenic mice.

A systematic literature review of the effect of insulin sensitizers on the cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease in transgenic mice. Behav Brain Res. 2019 Jun 27;:112015 Authors: Craig A, Parvez F, Issberner J Abstract CLINICAL IMPLICATION: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) presents as a gradual decline in cognitive function, with its characteristic pathology consisting of Amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation and hyperphosphorylated tau. Impaired insulin signalling was recently found in the brain in AD, and shown to increase AD pathology. Similar insulin resistance is found in type 2 diabetes and is currently treated with insulin sensitizers (IS). AIMS AND METHOD: The aim of this literature review was to evaluate whether IS could effectively reduce AD's characteristic pathology and symptoms in models of AD in transgenic mice. The efficacy of an IS (Metformin, Rosiglitazone or Pioglitazone) at improving each characteristic in transgenic mice was evaluated. RESULTS: A variety of cognitive tests and measures of pathology were utilized to assess these outcomes, hindering comparison. Improvements in cognition, learning and Aβ pathology were demonstrated by some papers, and all papers reported a decrease in tau phosphorylation, but no effect on total tau levels. PMID: 31255671 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

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ConclusionThe relationships between DM and AD identified by PET appear to be independent of amyloid deposition and predominantly highlighted by reduced glucose metabolism, as suggested by four of the five glucose metabolism studies.
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 September 2019Source: Life Sciences, Volume 233Author(s): Nandini H S, Yam Nath Paudel, Krishna K LAbstractEpilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate and aggravate epileptic seizures affecting around 1% of global population making it a serious health concern. Despite the recent advances in epilepsy research, no disease-modifying treatment able to terminate epileptogenesis have been reported yet reflecting the complexity in understanding the disease pathogenesis. To overcome the current treatment gap against epilepsy, one effective approach is to explore ...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
In conclusion, with study of the frailty syndrome still in its infancy, frailty analysis remains a major challenge. It is a challenge that needs to be overcome in order to shed light on the multiple mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. Although several mechanisms contribute to frailty, immune system alteration seems to play a central role: this syndrome is characterized by increased levels of pro-inflammatory markers and the resulting pro-inflammatory status can have negative effects on various organs. Future studies should aim to better clarify the immune system alteration in frailty, and seek to esta...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study we report the contribution and prognostic significance of GSK3B to two breast cancer subtypes; ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) using the Oncomine platform. We performed high throughput screening using molecular docking. We identified BT-000775, a compound that was subjected to further computational hit optimization protocols. Through computational predictions, BT-000775 is a highly selective GSK3B inhibitor, with superior binding affinity and robust ADME profiles suitable for the patho-physiological presentations. PMID: 31354196 [PubMed]
Source: Bioinformation - Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Tags: Bioinformation Source Type: research
Abstract Aggregates formed by amylin (a neuroendocrine peptide hormone secreted by pancreatic β-cells) are implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. To understand amylin's aggregation mechanism and discover its inhibitory drugs, we have reviewed experimental and computational studies on amylin structures and inhibitors. We have also reviewed the role of amylin in other conditions including obesity and Alzheimer's disease (AD), since effective therapeutics are still lacking for AD. Our results of text-mining over 3,000 amylin-related PubMed abstracts suggest the combined therapeutic potential...
Source: Current Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research
DIABETES DRUGS IN THE FIGHT AGAINST ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE. Ageing Res Rev. 2019 Jul 19;:100936 Authors: Boccardi V, Murasecco I, Mecocci P Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia, particularly in old age subjects. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, which are known as pathophysiological features of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), have also been demonstrated to have a significant impact on cognitive impairment. Studies have shown that an altered insulin pathway may interact with amyloid-β protein deposition and tau protein phosphorylation, both leading factors ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research
In conclusion, we show here that sEVs are responsible for mediating paracrine senescence and speculate that they could be involved in inducing bystander senescence during therapy-induced senescence or aging. In fact, when compared to soluble factors, sEVs have different biophysical and biochemical properties as they have a longer lifespan than do soluble factors and they are more resistant to protease degradation. The idea that blocking sEV secretion could be a potential therapeutic approach to alleviate senescence "spreading" during chemotherapy-induced senescence or in aging tissues presents itself as a very at...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Authors: Schulz H, Karrasch S, Bölke G, Cyrys J, Hornberg C, Pickford R, Schneider A, Witt C, Hoffmann B Abstract The third part of the DGP statement introduces the current body of knowledge on less studied health outcomes associated with exposure to ambient air pollution: the negative impact on metabolism leading to impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes as well as contribution to the development of neurodegenerative disorders and delayed cognitive function in children. Furthermore, prenatal exposure and adverse effects on mother and child are addressed. Finally, the currently discussed biological mechanisms...
Source: Pneumologie - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Pneumologie Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 July 2019Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Tong Ren, Jinfeng Liu, Yunlong Ge, Rengong Zhuo, Lu Peng, Feng Liu, Xin Jin, Lichao YangAbstractBrain is a site of diabetic end-organ damage. Diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction, referred as “diabetic encephalopathy” (DE) has been coined for the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus showing decline in their cognitive function, especially weak episodic memory, cognitive inflexibility and poor psychomotor performance leading towards Alzheimer's disease. Current evidence supported that aberrant synapses, energy meta...
Source: Neurochemistry International - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
ACS Chemical NeuroscienceDOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00123
Source: ACS Chemical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Source Type: research
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