PERSPECTIVES Natural History, Clinical Manifestations, and Pathogenesis of Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 1 and 2 Infections
Infection with genotype 1 or 2 hepatitis E virus (HEV) results primarily from human-to-human transmission through the fecal–oral route in low-resource countries. It presents primarily as "acute viral hepatitis" syndrome, usually a self-limiting illness. A few cases progress to acute liver failure, a serious illness with high fatality. Clinical disease is infrequent among children. Infection during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of symptomatic disease, severe liver injury, and mortality. Severe disease is also encountered in persons with preexisting chronic liver disease. Some cases have associated extrahepatic features, particularly acute pancreatitis and neurological manifestations. Chronic infection appears to be extremely infrequent with these HEV genotypes. The exact pathogenesis of liver injury remains unknown, although the host immune response appears to be important for viral clearance as well as for induction of liver injury. Hormonal and immune factors appear to be responsible for the severe disease during pregnancy.
[African Arguments] The ECOWAS court ruling could have important implications for Sierra Leone, external partners and other countries with similar bans.
CONCLUSIONS: We observed a high prevalence of HBV among HIV patients. In addition, the results suggest that OBI can occur in patients with serological profiles that are indicative of past infection. Therefore, the application of molecular tests may enable the identification of infections that are not evident solely based on serology.
CONCLUSIONS: An unprecedented strong association between rheumatological manifestations and HPA-3 polymorphism, possibly predisposing women to complications during the disease course, was observed.
ConclusionFor elective blastocyst stage transfer and a freezing strategy performed according to the Taiwan National Assisted Reproduction Act, a young female age ≤ 35 with positive pregnancy status due to the original IVF treatment, the production of ≥ 6 embryos, and the cryopreservation of ≥ 2 blastocysts may increase the likelihood of abandoning embryos in the future.
Conclusions: In our study, the women who followed the water-based exercise program gained less weight during pregnancy, which facilitated a better rate of spontaneous, non-instrumental childbirth, together with a better Apgar test score at five minutes.
ou Ling We aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of (1) treating acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) vs deferring treatment until the chronic phase and (2) treating all chronic patients vs only those with advanced fibrosis; among Chinese genotype 1b treatment-naïve patients who injected drugs (PWID), using a combination Daclatasvir (DCV) plus Asunaprevir (ASV) regimen and a Peg-interferon (PegIFN)-based regimen, respectively. A decision-analytical model including the risk of HCV reinfection simulated lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of three treatment timings, under the DCV+ASV and PegIFN r...
CONCLUSIONSHealth care providers and facilities should provide transmasculine people with tailored contraceptive information and care that address their specific gender ‐affirmation needs and contraceptive preferences in safe, inclusive and supportive clinical settings.
Introduction: Acute poisoning by organophosphosphorous Pesticides (OP) has reached epidemic proportions in developing countries. Their ease of access plays important role in choosing OP as a self-poison. Case reports on acute pancreatitis following acu...
ConclusionIn conclusion, transvaginal ultrasound guided local and systemic methotrexate injection may be performed successfully for the cases of advanced gestational age with fetal cardiac activity and high serum β-hCG levels.