PERSPECTIVES Acute and Persistent Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 and 4 Infection: Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, and Treatment

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype (gt)3 and 4 infections are prevalent in industrialized and high-income countries. Although most HEV gt3 and gt4 infections are clinically silent, acute infection may be symptomatic in some patients. In persons with underlying liver disease and in elderly men, HEV infections may present as acute or acute-on-chronic liver failure. Chronic hepatitis may develop in immunosuppressed individuals, including transplant recipients, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, and persons with hematologic malignancy undergoing chemotherapy, and may progress to life-threatening liver cirrhosis. Extrahepatic manifestations of infection may include neurological and renal disease. Although there is no approved specific therapy for the treatment of acute or chronic HEV gt3 or gt4 infection, off-label use of ribavirin appears to be capable of eliminating chronic HEV infection, and may reduce disease severity in patients suffering from acute liver failure.
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Enteric Hepatitis Viruses PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

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In this report, we present the case of a patient who was diagnosed with primary biliary cholangitis and metabolic syndrome. Initial evaluation also revealed diabetes with elevated fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin. After eight weeks of treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid, a complete normalization of the hepatic biological tests was observed. A few months later, while body weight and abdominal perimeter remained stable, fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin decreased significantly, compatible with diabetes disappearance. This finding supports the concept that the inflamed liver plays a major role in the...
Source: Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Acta Gastroenterol Belg Source Type: research
Conclusion: LC can be safely performed in cirrhotic patients. However, higher CTP and MELD scores, operative bleeding, more blood and plasma transfusion units, longer operative time, lower platelet count, and higher INR values are predictors of poor outcome that can be improved by proper patient selection and meticulous peri-operative care and by using Harmonic scalpel shears.
Source: Annals of Medicine and Surgery - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: HCV genotype 3, specifically subtype 3b, is associated with more rapid progression of liver disease. Further analysis to compare HCV subtype 3a and 3b is needed in high prevalence regions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01293279, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01293279; NCT01594554, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01594554. PMID: 31934936 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research
Oxidative stress is closely related to the occurrence and development of various diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular and infectious diseases. We identified six critical genetic variants related to oxidative stress, and evaluated their main effects and their interaction effects on hepatitis B virus (HBV)-induced liver diseases. We enrolled 3,128 Han Chinese subjects into five groups: healthy controls, chronic hepatitis B (CHB), liver cirrhosis (LC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and natural clearance. We then determined the genotypes in each group for CYBA-rs4673, NCF4-rs1883112, NOX4-rs1836882, rs301788...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
k A Abstract BACKGROUND: There is ongoing search for new noninvasive biomarkers to improve management of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Studies, mostly from the Asian-Pacific region, demonstrated differential expression of liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122) in tissue as well as in sera of patients with hepatitis B virus- and hepatitis C virus-induced HCC. AIM: To evaluate prognostic value of miR-122 in patients with HCC in a European population and determine potential factors related to alteration of miR-122 in sera. METHODS: Patients with confirmed HCC (n = 91) were included in the stu...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The CTP score but not HVPG or MELD were risk factors for severe PHG. Importantly, anemia and especially IDA are significantly more common in patients with severe PHG. PMID: 31912289 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Wien Klin Wochenschr Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this analysis provide valuable insights for national and regional health policymakers in the process of preparing high-quality health regional plans, as well as retrospectively assessing the success of existing health policies and interventions in this area. Facts presented in the study justify the need for specialised health care, which is part of the process of building an Integrated Health Care Centre in Slovakia. PMID: 31901192 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Central European Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Cent Eur J Public Health Source Type: research
ConclusionsHB-PAP maintained physical performance and improved aerobic fitness according to 6MWT but not CPET, supporting the use of personal activity trackers to monitor/guide home-based prehabilitation programs in cirrhosis.
Source: Digestive Diseases and Sciences - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents an important and growing public health problem, chronically infecting an estimated 70 million people worldwide. This blood-borne pathogen is generating a new wave of infections in the United States, associated with increasing intravenous drug use over the last decade. In most cases, HCV establishes a chronic infection, sometimes causing cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although a curative therapy exists, it is extremely expensive and provides no barrier to reinfection; therefore, a vaccine is urgently needed. The virion is asymmetric and heterogeneous with...
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Hepatitis C Viruses: The Story of a Scientific and Therapeutic Revolution PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease including metabolic disease, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCV induces and promotes liver disease progression by perturbing a range of survival, proliferative, and metabolic pathways within the proinflammatory cellular microenvironment. The recent breakthrough in antiviral therapy using direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) can cure>90% of HCV patients. However, viral cure cannot fully eliminate the HCC risk, especially in patients with advanced liver disease or comorbidities. HCV induces an epigenetic viral footprint that promotes a pro-onco...
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Hepatitis C Viruses: The Story of a Scientific and Therapeutic Revolution PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research
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