The reemergence of glanders as a zoonotic and occupational infection in Iran and neighboring countries

Glanders is a zoonotic infection, and because of recent outbreaks among Equidae family, the possibility of its reemergence among human populations is a crisis. The causative agent is Burkholderia mallei, a Gram-negative, aerobic and highly contagious bacterium causing severe impacts with low infectious dose transmitted via direct contact to respiratory secretions, skin exudates of animals and fomite. Despite high mortality rate, no proper vaccination has been developed to hinder the infection spread. The disease is more prevalent in Australia and Southeast Asia, but has been eradicated in developed countries. Glanders’ clinical signs include pulmonary and disseminated infection depending upon type of infection. Recent reports and outbreaks from Iran and neighboring countries among horses in 2011 and 2017 (Pakistan, Afghanistan and Kuwait), mules in 2008, 2011 and 2017 (Pakistan and Turkey), donkeys and horses in 2011–2015 (Pakistan) and tiger and camels in 2011 (Iran and Bahrain) is a concern. Animal importation or exportation; particularly by healthy carriers is a key route of B. mallei spread. Thus, infection control strategies, accurate and screening before animals’ import, prevention of animal contacts and development of prompt diagnostic approaches and proper therapeutic strategies are essential. Different forms of glanders have emerged or re-emerged in various animals. The factors leading to the re-emergence of the infection mostly include no specific ...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

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Source: Nursing Made Incredibly Easy - Category: Nursing Tags: Department: Ask an Expert Source Type: research
Psychiatric Services, Ahead of Print.
Source: Psychiatric Services - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, prophylactic passive immunization was performed in a miniature swine model, using two vaccination-induced monoclonal antibodies (mAb), JEV-31 and JEV-169. These were selected as representatives for antibodies reactive with the major antigenic structures in the E protein of JEV and related flaviviruses. JEV-31 recognizes the lateral ridge of E protein domain III (EDIII) whilst JEV-169 has a broad footprint of binding involving residues throughout domains I (EDI) and II (EDII) of the E protein. Detection of neutralizing antibodies in the serum of immunized animals mimics the presence of neutralizing antibodies...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
In this study, we designed and synthesized a novel coumarin derivative (C3007) for evaluating its in vitro and in vivo anti-SVCV effects. Here, we determined that up to 25 mg/L C3007 significantly decreased SVCV protein gene expression levels in EPC cells by a maximum inhibitory rate of>95%. When C3007 was preincubated with SVCV, infectivity was significantly inhibited in vitro in a time-dependent manner, with complete inhibition at 25 mg/L. For in vivo studies, C3007 exhibited an anti-SVCV effect by substantially enhancing the survival rate of virus-infected fish via intraperitoneal injection. Although the horizont...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
This article describes the techniques developed to overcome the challenges involved in respiratory X-ray imaging of live animals at synchrotrons, now enabling increasingly sophisticated imaging protocols.
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - Category: Physics Authors: Tags: inverse Compton source phase-contrast imaging mouse rat trachea lungs airways phase contrast biomedical imaging research papers Source Type: research
An oral, inactivated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccine (ETVAX) is safe and immunogenic in children, according to a new phase-1/2 trial.Reuters Health Information
Source: Medscape Allergy Headlines - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Infectious Diseases News Source Type: news
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Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 229Author(s): Jhonatas Rodrigues Barbosa, Maurício Madson dos Santos Freitas, Luiza Helena da Silva Martins, Raul Nunes de CarvalhoAbstractThe biodiversity of mushrooms Pleurotus spp. is impressive due to its complexity and diversity related to the composition of chemical structures such as polysaccharides, glycoproteins and secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids and betalains. Recent studies of polysaccharides and their structural elucidation have helped to direct research and development of technologies related to pharmacological a...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Recent occurrences of filoviruses and the arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV) in overlapping endemic areas of Africa highlight the need for a prophylactic vaccine that would confer protection against all of these viruses that cause lethal hemorrhagic fever (HF). We developed a quadrivalent formulation of VesiculoVax that contains recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vectors expressing filovirus glycoproteins and that also contains a rVSV vector expressing the glycoprotein of a lineage IV strain of LASV. Cynomolgus macaques were vaccinated twice with the quadrivalent formulation, followed by challenge 28 days after the b...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
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