Direct reprogramming into interneurons: potential for brain repair.

Direct reprogramming into interneurons: potential for brain repair. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2019 Jun 27;: Authors: Pereira M, Birtele M, Rylander Ottosson D Abstract The brain tissue has only a limited capacity for generating new neurons. Therefore, to treat neurological diseases, there is a need of other cell sources for brain repair. Different sources of cells have been subject of intense research over the years, including cells from primary tissue, stem cell-derived cells and reprogrammed cells. As an alternative, direct reprogramming of resident brain cells into neurons is a recent approach that could provide an attractive method for treating brain injuries or diseases as it uses the patient's own cells for generating novel neurons inside the brain. In vivo reprogramming is still in its early stages but holds great promise as an option for cell therapy. To date, both inhibitory and excitatory neurons have been obtained via in vivo reprogramming, but the precise phenotype or functionality of these cells has not been analysed in detail in most of the studies. Recent data shows that in vivo reprogrammed neurons are able to functionally mature and integrate into the existing brain circuitry, and compose interneuron phenotypes that seem to correlate to their endogenous counterparts. Interneurons are of particular importance as they are essential in physiological brain function and when disturbed lead to several neurological disorders. In this review, we descri...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

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We present evidence that the human adult lung does repair and regenerate and introduce different ways to harness this power. Various types of lung stem cells are capable of proliferating and differentiating upon injury driving the repair/regeneration process. Injury models, primarily in mice, combined with lineage tracing studies, have allowed the identification of these important cells. Some of these cells, such as basal cells, broncho-alveolar stem cells, and alveolar type 2 cells, rely on fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling for their survival, proliferation and/or differentiation. While preclinical studies have sho...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Yalda Jahanbani, Soudabe Davaran, Maryam Ghahremani-Nasab, Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Mehdi YousefiAbstractTissue engineering and the use of scaffolds have shown high therapeutic potentialities about male and female infertility. Nowadays, many couples are suffering from infertility problems. There are different causes for infertility including chemotherapy (for male and female), uterine injuries, and intrauterine adhesions. Extra-cellular matrix in tissue engineering provides a supportive medium for blood or lymphatic vessels making it a suitabl...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Authors: Houschyar KS, Tapking C, Puladi B, Popp D, Duscher D, Rein S, Reumuth G, Grieb G, Branski LK, Siemers F, Lehnhardt M, Yazdi AS Abstract Human skin is an efficient barrier that protects the organism from noxious substances. Wounds destroy this barrier. Wound healing is a phased physiological regeneration of the destroyed tissue that ideally leads to occlusion of a wound, in particular by regeneration of connective tissue and capillaries. The Wnt signaling pathway is a highly conserved signal transduction cascade across the animal kingdom that controls basic cellular interactions in multicellular organisms. ...
Source: Handchirurgie Mikrochirurgie Plastische Chirurgie - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir Source Type: research
In this study, we found that CPT1 (Carnitine palmitoyl transferase I) and CPT2 (Carnitine palmitoyl transferase II), a pair of rate-limiting enzymes for mitochondrial fatty acid transportation, play a critical role in increasing fatty acid oxidation (FAO) required for the cellular fuel demands in radioresistant breast cancer cells (RBCs) and radiation-derived breast cancer stem cells (RD-BCSCs). Enhanced CPT1A/CPT2 expression was detected in the recurrent human breast cancers and associated with a worse prognosis in breast cancer patients. Blocking FAO via a FAO inhibitor or by CRISPR-mediated CPT1A/CPT2 gene deficiency in...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Authors: Zhang Y, Li L, Xu Y, Zhao X, Li F Abstract The regeneration of the skin is vital to our wound healing and skin repair abilities. Adult epidermal stem cells (ESCs) have been shown to have the potential to renew old and dead skin cells, and ESCs have been implemented in stem cell-based therapies. GPR30 is a G protein-coupled membrane receptor for oestrogen, which has been shown to regulate cell proliferation and programmed cell death. Here, we examined the biological function of GPR30 in isolated adult murine ESCs. We show that GPR30 is fairly expressed in ESCs and is repressed upon ultraviolet B (UV-B) trea...
Source: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Tags: Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol Source Type: research
This study provides evidence that sORFs can be alternatively translated and the derived peptides may play an important role in physiological processes including vascular remodeling.© AlphaMed Press 2019Significance StatementHistone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7) plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of the endothelial integrity. Short open reading frames (sORFs) exist within the 5 ′ terminal non‐coding area of Hdac7 mRNA. It remains unclear whether these sORFs contribute to HADC7 functions. In this study, we demonstrated that a 7‐amino acid peptide could be translated from a sORF. This peptide could act as phosphat...
Source: Stem Cells - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Tissue ‐Specific Stem Cells Source Type: research
Cell identity maintenance, at all stages of life, is modulated by inhibitory signals from the surrounding cellular environment. Stress ‐mediated suppression of these signals, such as after a lesion, may lead fully mature differentiated specialized cells to change their function, thus fostering regeneration of injured tissue. Controlling this cellular plasticity could prove crucial to developing new therapies to treat degenerative diseases. AbstractTo date, most attention on tissue regeneration has focused on the exploration of positive cues promoting or allowing the engagement of natural cellular restoration upon injury....
Source: Stem Cells - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Regenerative Medicine Source Type: research
Function Follows Form - A Review of Cardiac Cell Therapy. Circ J. 2019 Nov 13;: Authors: Nakamura K, Murry CE Abstract The investment of nearly 2 decades of clinical investigation into cardiac cell therapy has yet to change cardiovascular practice. Recent insights into the mechanism of cardiac regeneration help explain these results and provide important context in which we can develop next-generation therapies. Non-contractile cells such as bone marrow or adult heart derivatives neither engraft long-term nor induce new muscle formation. Correspondingly, these cells offer little functional benefit t...
Source: Circulation Journal - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Circ J Source Type: research
ConclusionThe finding suggested that LC had the ability to protect neurons by promoting the endogenous proliferation of neuroblast and production of neural differentiation factor in rats after ischemia injury. Meanwhile, LC can anti-neuroinflammation, which is important for the treatment of neuron injury. Accordingly, LC perhaps a promising medicine for neuron damage therapy after cerebral ischemia.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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