Understanding sarcoma: from diagnosis to treatment

A cancer diagnosis can be scary and confusing, especially for a patient receiving a sarcoma diagnosis. What is sarcoma? Sarcoma is a rare cancer of the soft tissues and bone. Most types of cancer originate in the epithelial linings that cover exposed surfaces of the body and have direct exposure to environmental toxins. Sarcomas, however, originate from cells or tissues that lie below these lini ngs in the muscle, bone, cartilage, fat, blood vessels, smooth muscle and skeletal muscles. Any type…
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines - Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Source Type: news

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Adjuvant chemotherapy has long been indicated to extend survival in completely resected stage IB to IIIA non ‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, there is accumulating evidence that chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy can induce epithelial‐to‐mesenchymal transition (EMT) in disseminated or circulating NSCLC cells. Here, we describe the first case of EMT as the cause of recurrence and metastasis in a patient with resected stage IIB lung adenosquamous carcinoma after adjuvant chemotherapy. We review the literature and explore the possible mechanisms by which EMT occurs in disseminated tumor cells (DTC) or circulatin...
Source: Thoracic Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Conventional urothelial and adjacent sarcomatoid morphologies of MIBC arise from the same common ancestor and share a basal-like phenotype. However, divergence between the morphologies at the genome, transcriptome, and proteome level suggests differential sensitivity to therapy. PMID: 31358384 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Urologic Oncology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Urol Oncol Source Type: research
The objective response rate was 8.88% (4/45), and the disease control rate was 88.89% (40/45). The most common grade 3/4 treatment-related AEs were hypertension (12.50%), hand–foot syndrome (6.67%), diarrhea (12.50%), fatigue (6.25%), and proteinuria (14.29%). One drug-related severe AE of thrombocytopenia (21×109/l) occurred 2 months after therapy. Apatinib treatment in our study exhibited objective efficacy in PFS, OS, and manageable toxicity in patients with advanced sarcoma. This result supports future randomized controlled trials to further define apatinib activity in stage IV sarcomas.
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Clinical Reports Source Type: research
About 5% of ovarian tumours have a non-epithelial histology, including germ cell tumours (GCTs), sex cord-stromal tumours (SCSTs) and sarcomas. Because these non-epithelial ovarian tumours are rare and population-based studies are scarce, the aim of this population-based study is to describe trends in the incidence, treatment  and survival of women with these tumours in the Netherlands.
Source: European Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Original Research Source Type: research
Ong Guia Palacios Endometrial carcinosarcoma (ECS) represents one of the most extreme examples of tumor heterogeneity among human cancers. ECS is a clinically aggressive, high-grade, metaplastic carcinoma. At the morphological level, intratumor heterogeneity in ECS is due to an admixture of epithelial (carcinoma) and mesenchymal (sarcoma) components that can include heterologous tissues, such as skeletal muscle, cartilage, or bone. Most ECSs belong to the copy-number high serous-like molecular subtype of endometrial carcinoma, characterized by the TP53 mutation and the frequently accompanied by a large number of ...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
ConclusionsPrimary carcinosarcoma of the bone is an extremely rare malignancy. Early diagnosis is crucial as localized disease may be curable with resection. As shown in this case, combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and docetaxel is a potential option in patients with unresectable or metastatic disease.
Source: Clinical Sarcoma Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, we generated a novel subunit vaccine that incorporates four key KSHV envelope glycoproteins required for viral entry in diverse cell types (gpK8.1, gB, and gH/gL) into a single multivalent KSHV-like particle (KSHV-LP). Purified KSHV-LPs were similar in size, shape, and morphology to KSHV virions. Vaccination of rabbits with adjuvanted KSHV-LPs generated strong glycoprotein-specific antibody responses, and purified immunoglobulins from KSHV-LP-immunized rabbits neutralized KSHV infection in epithelial, endothelial, fibroblast, and B cell lines (60-90% at the highest concentration tested). These findings sugge...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Authors: Gołota J, Osowiecka K, Orłowski T Abstract Introduction: Primary pulmonary sarcomas (PPS) are rare types of non-epithelial malignant tumors of the lungs (0.013-1.1% of all malignant lung tumors). The PPS can originate from mesenchymal elements of the bronchial wall, vessels or pulmonary stroma. Since the introduction of immunohistochemical and molecular diagnosis, a significant improvement in description and classification of sarcomas has been achieved. Nonetheless, sarcomas still remain a diagnostic and clinical problem. Aim: To estimate factors which could have an influence on the overall survival (OS)...
Source: Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Tags: Kardiochir Torakochirurgia Pol Source Type: research
Conclusions The recent, first randomized clinical trial demonstrated overall and progression free survival benefits after SBRT to oligometastatic disease which supports prior retrospective case series (6). The spine is a common site of metastatic bone disease, and as high quality data continue to mature, along with completion of additional randomized clinical trials, it is expected that utility of SBRT to the spine will increase in the future. Spine SBRT is unique due to the requirement of sharp dose falloff to prevent serious neurologic morbidity. With recent advances in radiotherapy planning, robotic patient positionin...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion Astroblastoma is an extremely rare CNS tumor. Morphological diagnosis is difficult, as the typical astroblastic rosettes may be present also in other CNS tumors, including some gliomas and ependymomas. In fact, AB can be considered as a morphologic pattern, which can be associated with a spectrum of molecular entities. Total resection is the best treatment; the precise role of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is still debated, particularly for high-grade tumors. We believe that DNA-methylation profiles represents an important instrument for confirming diagnosis, predicting prognosis and better defining the molec...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
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