Controversy around airborne versus droplet transmission of respiratory viruses: implication for infection prevention

Purpose of review Health agencies recommend transmission-based precautions, including contact, droplet and airborne precautions, to mitigate transmission of respiratory viruses in healthcare settings. There is particular controversy over the importance of aerosol transmission and whether airborne precautions should be recommended for some respiratory viruses. Here, we review the current recommendations of transmission-based precautions and the latest evidence on the aerosol transmission of respiratory viruses. Recent findings Viral nucleic acids, and in some instances viable viruses, have been detected in aerosols in the air in healthcare settings for some respiratory viruses such as seasonal and avian influenza viruses, Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus and respiratory syncytial virus. However, current evidences are yet to demonstrate that these viruses can effectively spread via airborne route between individuals, or whether preventive measures in airborne precautions would be effective. Summary Studies that use transmission events as outcome to demonstrate human-to-human transmission over the aerosol route or quantitative measurement of infectious respiratory viruses in the air are needed to evaluate the infectiousness of respiratory viruses over the aerosol route. When a respiratory virus in concern only leads to disease with low severity, airborne precautions are not likely to be justified.
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: NOSOCOMIAL AND HEALTHCARE RELATED INFECTIONS: Edited by Trish M. Perl Source Type: research

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Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Abstract The International Society for Influenza and other Respiratory Virus Diseases held its 6th Antiviral Group (isirv-AVG) conference in Rockville, Maryland, November 13-15, 2018. The three-day program was focused on therapeutics towards seasonal and pandemic influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, coronaviruses including MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, human rhinovirus, and other respiratory viruses. Updates were presented on several influenza antivirals including baloxavir, CC-42344, VIS410, immunoglobulin, immune plasma, MHAA4549A, pimodivir (JNJ-63623872), umifenovir, and HA minibinders; RSV antivirals including pr...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
Authors: Mandil A, Bresee J, Tageldin MA, Azad TM, Khan W Abstract Infectious diseases continue to represent a significant threat to global health security, particularly in the context of increasing globalization, interconnectedness and interdependence. Chief among such threats are influenza viruses and other respiratory pathogens, such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), because of their risk of high transmissibility and acuity of illness. Annual epidemics of seasonal influenza cause an estimated 3-5 million cases of severe illness and more than 500 000 deaths, with the prospect of pandemic...
Source: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal - Category: Middle East Health Tags: East Mediterr Health J Source Type: research
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Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: news
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Source: Current Opinion in Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
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Source: EPMonthly.com - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
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Source: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
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Source: American Journal of Infection Control - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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