CADTH rapid review: Probiotics for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, clostridium difficile infection and irritable bowel syndrome

Source: Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) Area: News This Canadian review examines the efficacy and safety of probiotics in antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD), clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).   A total of one health technology assessment, five systematic reviews/meta-analyses, and 25 RCTs were included in this review. Some of the findings reported were as follows:   . There is a lack of assessment and systematic reporting of adverse events in probiotic trials.   . Evidence from two meta-analyses indicated probiotics administered concurrently with antibiotics may reduce the incidence of AAD, with the most robust data coming from trials that administered S. boulardii and strains of Lactobacillus alone or in combination with other genera versus placebo.   . Two other meta-analyses suggested probiotics as adjunct to antibiotics may reduce the incidence of CDI in the primary prevention setting, but have little or no benefit in treating ...
Source: NeLM - News - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: news

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Conditions:   Cariostatic Agents;   Mouthwashes Interventions:   Drug: Chlorhexidine mouthwash;   Drug: Xylitol;   Drug: Probiotic Sponsor:   Dr. Krupa NC Completed
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Authors: Duran G, Cruz R, Simoes AR, Barros F, Balboa E, Giráldez JM, Bernárdez B, Anido U, Candamio S, López-López R, Carracedo Á, Lamas MJ Abstract We studied the predictive value for response and toxicity of functional polymorphisms in genes involved in the oxaliplatin/fluorouracil pathway in colorectal cancer patients. One hundred and twenty-seven (127) patients were treated with curative intended surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with FOLFOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin) regimen. The median age was 65.53 (27-80) years (66.9% male, 59.1% rectum). The media...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research
ConclusionAfter great improvements in rectal cancer treatment, late gastrointestinal toxicity after radiotherapy is experienced less frequent and less severe; however, it remains a great concern associated with worse quality of life.
Source: International Journal of Colorectal Disease - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect ofB. subtilis spores as adjuvants in chickens administered inactivated avian influenza virus H9N2. Herein, the adjuvanticity ofB. subtilis spores in chickens was demonstrated by enhancement of H9N2 virus-specific IgG responses.B. subtilis spores enhanced the proportion of B cells and the innate cell population in splenocytes from chickens administered both inactivated H9N2 andB. subtilis spores (Spore  + H9N2). Furthermore, the H9N2 and spore administration induced significantly increased expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: May 2020Source: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, Volume 18, Issue 5Author(s): Li LI, Hui-Min ZHU, Qi YAN, Song-Ya LI, Fei LI
Source: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines - Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research
ConclusionIn this study, the potential of S. domestica in the treatment of colitis was investigated. Fruits of this plant were found to have important anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Through isolation techniques, vanillic acid 4-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, protocateuic acid anhydrite and trivanilloyl-(1,3,4-trihydroxybenzol) ester were determined as the main active components of the fruits. Consequently, S domestica might be a promising candidate for upcoming use the prevention and treatment of various disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome and Clostridium difficile infecti...
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog - Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog aka Tropical Travel Trouble 004 A medical student who has just returned from their elective in Nepal presents with 1 week of bloody diarrhoea. He has been in the lowlands and stayed with a family in the local village he was helping at. It started three days before he left and he decided to get home on the plane in the hope it would settle. He is now opening his bowels 10x a day with associated cramps, fevers and has started feeling dizzy. Questions: Q1. What is dyse...
Source: Life in the Fast Lane - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Clinical Cases Tropical Medicine amoebic dysentery bacillary dysentery e.histolytica entamoeba histolytica shigellosis Source Type: blogs
E, Sosa-López FA Abstract In the fourth century, during the Chinese Dong Jin dynasty, the doctor Ge Hong described good results after the oral administration of a suspension prepared from human faeces in patients with severe diarrhoea or food poisoning. Faecal microbiota transplantation has been used for five years in order to treat different diseases in addition to the severe diarrhoea caused by Clostridium difficile(1). This paper aims to confirm that intestinal microbiota transplantation succeeds in reducing the negative impact of diseases such as severe diarrhoea, irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, alle...
Source: Cirugia y Cirujanos - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Cir Cir Source Type: research
Summary BackgroundInfectious enteritis is a commonly identified risk factor for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is on the rise. However, there is limited information on post‐infectious IBS (PI‐IBS) development following CDI and the host‐ and infection‐related risk factors are not known. AimTo determine the incidence and risk factors for PI‐IBS following CDI. MethodsA total of 684 cases of CDI identified from September 2012 to November 2013 were surveyed. Participants completed the Rome III IBS questionnaire and details on the CDI episode. Predictive modelling...
Source: Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Conclusion The human microbiome is a fascinating field of research, and we are just beginning to learn how this colony of bacteria in our guts affects our health. This research widens our knowledge of these bacteria, and suggests ways they may survive and spread from person to person. It also shows that many bacterial spores are resistant to ethanol, the main ingredient of hygienic hand gels. This reinforces the importance of using soap to wash your hands and not to rely on hand gels, especially in hospitals. Because of the headlines in some newspapers, it's important to be clear about what the research hasn't found. It ha...
Source: NHS News Feed - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Obesity Food/diet Source Type: news
More News: Clostridium Difficile | Diarrhoea | Drugs & Pharmacology | Health | Irritable Bowel Syndrome | Probiotics