Dermoscopy for the Pediatric Dermatologist Part I: Dermoscopy of Pediatric Infectious and Inflammatory Skin Lesions and Hair Disorders

Abstract The dermoscope allows physicians to examine the macroscopic and microscopic primary morphology of skin lesions, identify subtle clinical clues, confirm naked‐eye clinical diagnoses, and monitor treatment progress while posing little threat to the young patient. This review summarizes important dermoscopic structures seen in infectious and inflammatory skin conditions and hair disorders in children. Scabies, pediculosis, phthiriasis, molluscum contagiosum, tinea nigra, and verrucae are well characterized dermoscopically by delta‐shaped structures, ovoid‐shaped nits, the crab louse, red corona, brown strands or spicules, and multiple densely packed papilla with a central black dot surrounded by a whitish halo, respectively. These dermoscopic structures will be discussed, focusing on the dermoscopic morphologies and dermoscopic sensitivity for diagnosis and its utility in monitoring treatment progress. Dermoscopy has also been shown to significantly improve the clinician's diagnostic and monitoring accuracy of inflammatory skin lesions such as psoriasis, which is characterized dermoscopically by uniformly distributed dotted blood vessels, and lichen planus, which is characterized by whitish lines on a purple to reddish background. Dermoscopy of the hair and scalp (trichoscopy) facilitates the differential diagnosis of hair diseases in children, including alopecia areata, trichotillomania, and tinea capitis. It can also assist in the diagnosis of multiple genetic h...
Source: Pediatric Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

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Source: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research
Authors: Nakamura H, Nakayama D, Tanaka S, Horita T PMID: 31434824 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
Psoriasis affects more than 3% of the general population and is associated with an increased risk of premature cardiovascular events and death. We assessed the prognostic role of coronary flow reserve (CFR) as a marker of coronary microvascular function in psoriasis patients asymptomatic for cardiovascular disease.
Source: Atherosclerosis - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research
This article provides an overview of hidradenitis suppurativa, lichen planus, lichen sclerosis, calcinosis cuti, pyogenic granuloma, intertrigo, and seborrheic keratosis. This article also focuses on recognition and management of these pleomorphic afflictions of the perianal region. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text
Source: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
FOXN1 is the master regulatory gene of thymic epithelium development. FOXN1 deficiency leads to thymic aplasia, alopecia, and nail dystrophy, accounting for the nude/severe combined immunodeficiency (nu/SCID) phenotype in humans and mice. We identified several newborns with low levels of T  cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and T cell lymphopenia at birth, who carried heterozygous loss-of-function FOXN1 variants. Longitudinal analysis showed persistent T cell lymphopenia during infancy, often associated with nail dystrophy.
Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
AbstractTo systematically review the role of ultrasound (US) in the assessment of the joint-enthesial-nail apparatus in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) or psoriasis (PSO) in terms of prevalence, diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring and treatment. A systematic literature review was conducted through medical databases (PubMed, Embase) and the grey literature up to February 2018. The main areas of application of nail US were first identified, allowing the development of research questions, which were rephrased following the PICOs methodology to develop inclusion criteria. Of the 585 studies produced by PubMed and Embase s...
Source: Clinical Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research
In this report, we describe a case of a patient with a clinical history of systemic sarcoidosis and psoriasis who developed biopsy-confirmed perforating and necrotizing cutaneous granulomas after 12 months of treatment with adalimumab, a tumor necrosis factor-alpha–inhibiting, anti-inflammatory, biologic medication, prescribed for the patient's psoriasis. Although rare reports of a “sarcoidosis-like” reaction associated with select tumor necrosis factor-alpha agents exist, to the best of our knowledge, perforating and necrotizing cutaneous granulomas after treatment with adalimumab has not been previously...
Source: The American Journal of Dermatopathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Extraordinary Case Report Source Type: research
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Introduction: Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA), a clinical variant of lichen planopilaris, is characterized by progressive, scarring hair loss of the frontal hairline and eyebrows. The prevalence of FFA is increasing worldwide and it is considered a dermatologic “emergency. ” FFA’s pathogenesis is currently unknown.
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research
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