Study questions success of health intervention currently used in developing countries

(Carnegie Mellon University) In the early 20th century, researchers in Massachusetts studied the first community-based health intervention in the world, the Framingham Health and Tuberculosis Demonstration, deeming it highly successful in controlling tuberculosis (TB) and reducing mortality. Now a new study has concluded that the effort was not as successful as initially thought, and suggests that the intervention cannot be cited as evidence for the success of health policies in the era before antibiotics became available.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

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AbstractPopulation attributable fraction (PAF) refers to the proportion of all cases with a particular outcome in a population that could be prevented by eliminating a specific exposure. The authors of a recent paper evaluated the prevalence and estimated the PAFs for risk factors of TB among elderly people in China [Inf Dis Poverty. 2019;8:7]. Confounding is inevitable in observational studies and Levin ’s formula is of limited use in practice for unbiasedly estimating PAF. In a complex survey design, an unbiased estimation of the PAF can be calculated using a sample-weighted version of the Miettinen formula or a sa...
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2019Source: The Lancet Respiratory MedicineAuthor(s): Hanif Esmail, Marc C Lipman, Andrew Nunn, Timothy M Walker
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
ConclusionsTaken together, our results demonstrated that PAS resistance and mutations in katG, inhA promoter or oxyR-ahpC intergenic region in INH resistant M. tuberculosis has little effect on pasiniazid susceptibility.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
This article describes the simultaneous determination of bedaquiline fumarate (TMC-207) and rifabutin in human plasma by stable isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. The methodology was developed for an investigation of potential drug-drug interactions of the two anti-tuberculosis drugs when given together to healthy human volunteers. Use of the two drugs in combination to treat disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is contemplated as the bacterium becomes resistant to many currently available drugs.
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
aacute;n Vančo Zdeněk Trávníček Alois Čížek Andrzej Bąk Josef Jampílek A series of twenty-six methoxylated and methylated N-aryl-1-hydroxynaphthalene- 2-carboxanilides was prepared and characterized as potential anti-invasive agents. The molecular structure of N-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)-1-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide as a model compound was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All the analysed compounds were tested against the reference strain Staphylococcus aureus and three clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus as well as against Mycobacterium tubercu...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In this study, Mycobacterium avium (n= 77, 17.7%), Mycobacterium intracellulare (n= 70, 16.1%), Mycobacterium szulgai (n= 19, 4.4%), Mycobacterium kansasii (n= 10, 2.3%) ve Mycobacterium smiae (n= 9, 2.1%) were isolated as slowly growing mycobacteria from the pulmonary patients. Susceptibility testing was performed in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (CAMH), supplemented with "oleic acid, albumin dextrose catalase" according to CLSI/ M24-A2 guideline recommendations. For the antibiotic susceptibility test, ready-to-use plaque drugs for slow-growing mycobacteria (SLOMYCO-Sensititre, TREK Diagnostic Systems Ltd...
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research
Authors: Bozok T, Kayar B, Yakıcı G, Eker E, Marzi M, Karslı F, Köksal F Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic, granulomatous and necrotizing disease caused by microorganisms belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex group. In 2017, 6.4 million new TB cases have been reported according to the World Health Organization 2018 Global Tuberculosis Report. TB remains among the major health problems of our time due to the increasing drug resistance problem and the difficulties in definitive diagnosis in recent years. It is stated by clinicians that intensive use of quinolone group drugs with oral form ...
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research
Background: The World Health Organization recommends isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for people living with HIV (PLHIV) to prevent tuberculosis (TB), including pregnant women. Recent trial results suggest increased adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with IPT during pregnancy. Data are limited regarding programmatic IPT use in pregnant PLHIV. Methods: We assessed previous programmatic IPT during pregnancy among HIV-infected mothers on enrollment to an infant TB prevention trial in Kenya. Pregnancy IPT use was assessed by the estimated conception date assuming 38 weeks of gestation. Correlates of initiation and co...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research
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Source: Global Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), remains the top fatal infection continuing to threat public health, and the present detection method for MTB is facing great challenges with the global TB burden. In response to this issue, a novel electrochemical DNA biosensor was developed for detecting the IS6110 fragment within MTB. For the first time, the nanohybrid of gold nanoparticles decorated fullerene nanoparticles/nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheet (Au-nano-C60/NGS) directly served as a new signal tag to generate signal response without additional redox molecules and subsequently la...
Source: Analytica Chimica Acta - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Anal Chim Acta Source Type: research
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