Antitumor Activities and Cellular Changes Induced by TrkB Inhibition in Medulloblastoma
Neurotrophins are critically involved in regulating normal neural development and plasticity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin that acts by binding to the tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor, has also been implicated in the progression of several types of cancer. However, its role in medulloblastoma (MB), the most common type of malignant brain tumor afflicting children, remains unclear. Here we show that selective TrkB inhibition with the small molecule compound ANA-12 impaired proliferation and viability of human UW228 and D283 MB cells, and slowed the growth of MB tumors xenografted into nude mice. These effects were accompanied by increased apoptosis, reduced extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) activity, increased expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and differential modulation of p21 expression dependent on the cell line. In addition, MB cells treated with ANA-12 showed morphological alterations consistent with differentiation, increased levels of the neural differentiation marker β-III Tubulin (TUBB3), and reduced expression of the stemness marker Nestin. These findings are consistent with the possibility that selective TrkB inhibition can display consistent anticancer effects in MB, possibly by modulating intracellular signaling and gene expression related to tumor progression, apoptosis, and differentiation.
A drug used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia appears to be more effective at stopping a type of medulloblastoma in mouse models than existing treatments for the deadly pediatric brain tumor, reports a multi-institutional team led by researchers at Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences at University of California San Diego.
Toni Ilsley's son Charlie, now 12, from Reading, was diagnosed with the brain tumour medulloblastoma when he was just eight years old in 2015. It spread to his spine last year.
The human neurotropic virus JCPyV, a member of the Polyomaviridiae family, is the opportunistic infectious agent of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal disease seen in severe immunosuppressive conditions and, during the last decade, in patients undergoing immunotherapy. JCPyV is a ubiquitous pathogen with up to 85% of the adult population word-wide exhibiting antibodies against it. Early experiments demonstrated that direct inoculation of JCPyV into the brain of different species resulted in the development of brain tumors and other neuroectodermal-derived neoplasias. Later, several reports showed the...
CONCLUSIONS: CD133 is a marker for medulloblastoma SCLCCs. Both CD133-enriched and CD133-depleted medulloblastoma cell populations demonstrated sensitivity to UAB30, indicating its potential as a therapeutic option for group 3 medulloblastoma. PMID: 31362265 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
(St. Jude Children's Research Hospital) Investigators at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, alongside others, have revealed the cells of origin for specific subtypes of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor. The work also has implications for how medulloblastoma is classified, which may eventually shape clinical care. The work appears as an advance online publication today in Nature.
Conditions: Brain Tumor; Brain Tumor, Recurrent; Brain Tumor, Refractory; Brain Tumor, Pediatric; Medulloblastoma; Medulloblastoma Recurrent; Medulloblastoma, Non-WNT/Non-SHH; Medulloblastoma, Non-WNT/Non-SHH, Group 3; Medulloblastoma, Non-WNT/Non-SHH, Group 4; Brai n Cancer; CNS Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Neoplasm Interventions: Drug: Prexasertib; Drug: Cyclophosphamide; Drug: Gemcitabine; Biological:...
Mojgan Rastegar Medulloblastoma is a common pediatric brain tumor and one of the main types of solid cancers in children below the age of 10. Recently, cholesterol-lowering “statin” drugs have been highlighted for their possible anti-cancer effects. Clinically, statins are reported to have promising potential for consideration as an adjuvant therapy in different types of cancers. However, the anti-cancer effects of statins in medulloblastoma brain tumor cells are not currently well-defined. Here, we investigated the cell death mechanisms by which simvastatin mediates its effects on different human...