The heterotetrameric structure of the adenosine A1-dopamine D1 receptor complex: Pharmacological implication for restless legs syndrome.

The heterotetrameric structure of the adenosine A1-dopamine D1 receptor complex: Pharmacological implication for restless legs syndrome. Adv Pharmacol. 2019;84:37-78 Authors: Cortés A, Casadó-Anguera V, Moreno E, Casadó V Abstract Dopaminergic and purinergic signaling play a pivotal role in neurological diseases associated with motor symptoms, including Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington disease, Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), spinal cord injury (SCI), and ataxias. Extracellular dopamine and adenosine exert their functions interacting with specific dopamine (DR) or adenosine (AR) receptors, respectively, expressed on the surface of target cells. These receptors are members of the family A of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which is the largest protein superfamily in mammalian genomes. GPCRs are target of about 40% of all current marketed drugs, highlighting their importance in clinical medicine. The striatum receives the densest dopamine innervations and contains the highest density of dopamine receptors. The modulatory role of adenosine on dopaminergic transmission depends largely on the existence of antagonistic interactions mediated by specific subtypes of DRs and ARs, the so-called A2AR-D2R and A1R-D1R interactions. Due to the dopamine/adenosine antagonism in the CNS, it was proposed that ARs and DRs could form heteromers in the neuronal cell surface. Therefore, adenosine c...
Source: Advances in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Adv Pharmacol Source Type: research

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Conclusion: It seems possible to identify a morphologic intestinal disease substrate in Parkinson's disease by H&E staining, showing ganglion cell pycnosis and degeneration in both plexa. This finding may indicate a potential to diagnose enteric neuropathy in highly accessible sites. PMID: 31321021 [PubMed]
Source: Parkinsons Disease - Category: Neurology Tags: Parkinsons Dis Source Type: research
Overexpression of TG2 enhances the differentiation of ectomesenchymal stem cells into neuron‑like cells and promotes functional recovery in adult rats following spinal cord injury. Mol Med Rep. 2019 Jul 15;: Authors: Shi W, Que Y, Lv D, Bi S, Xu Z, Wang D, Zhang Z Abstract Ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs) represent a type of adult stem cells derived from the cranial neural crest. These cells are capable of self‑renewal and have the potential for multidirectional differentiation. Tissue transglutaminase type 2 (TG2) is a ubiquitously expressed member of the transglutaminase family of Ca2+‑depend...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
This study explores the effectiveness of thymol blue for the first time together with supramolecular solvent to develop green supramolecular solvent liquid–phase microextraction method to preconcentrate and separate of trace amount of Aluminum (III) in real samples.Graphical abstractThe procedure of the supramolecular solvent liquid–phase microextraction technique.
Source: Microchemical Journal - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Conclusions: Eph/Ephrin signaling plays an inhibitory role following TBI. Targeting the Eph signaling pathway with Fc fusion proteins and pharmacological agents can be a novel strategy to counter the damaging effects of TBI. Abbreviations: LFP: lateral fluid percussion; TBI: traumatic brain injury; KO: knockout; WT: wildtype; PTP2: protein phosphotyrosine phosphatase 2; Tg: transgenic; YFP: yellow fluorescent protein; ATM: atmospheres; RT-qPCR: Real-time-quantitative PCR; dpi: days post injury; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; DAPI: 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; PBS: phosphate buffered saline; GFAP: glial ...
Source: Brain Injury - Category: Neurology Tags: Brain Inj Source Type: research
ConclusionThis variant does not seem to play a determining role in the pathogenesis of MS, although further studies examining the presence of TREM2 mutations in other, phylogenetically different populations and the epigenetic regulation of this gene are needed in order to thoroughly investigate its role in MS.
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusions: MS patients in Malaysia face several barriers in accessing palliative care. Overcoming these barriers will require improving the shared understanding of palliative care and its role in MS. The existing care pathway also needs to be reformed to ensure that it improves access to palliative care for MS patients.
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 July 2019Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related DisordersAuthor(s): Peter Joseph JongenAbstractObservational studies investigate a wide range of topics in multiple sclerosis research. This paper presents an overview of the various observational designs and their applications in clinical studies. Observational studies are well suited for making discoveries and assessing new explanations of phenomena, but less so for establishing causal relationships, due to confounding by indication (selection bias), co-morbidity, socio-economic or other factors. Whether observational findings are demon...
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2019Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): Marcel van de Wouw, Marcus Boehme, Timothy G. Dinan, John F. CryanAbstractThe gastrointestinal microbiome has emerged as a key player in regulating brain and behaviour. This has led to the strategy of targeting the gut microbiota to ameliorate disorders of the central nervous system. Understanding the underlying signalling pathways in which the microbiota impacts these disorders is crucial for the development of future therapeutics for improving CNS functionality. One of the major pathways through which the microbiota influences ...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
PARKINSON ’S DISEASE is a progressive disease of the nervous system marked by certain symptoms. There are six early symptoms to spot that could mean the disease is prevalent. What are they?
Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
ConclusionsBacterial resistance is frequent among patients with ASB and planned urological procedures. Advanced age and prior hospitalization should be borne in mind for patients with planned urological procedures because they are factors associated with the presence of MDR bacteria.
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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