Yersinia pestis and plague: an updated view on evolution, virulence determinants, immune subversion, vaccination and diagnostics

Publication date: Available online 25 June 2019Source: Microbes and InfectionAuthor(s): Christian Demeure, Olivier Dussurget, Guillem Mas Fiol, Anne-Sophie Le Guern, Cyril Savin, Javier Pizarro-CerdáAbstractPlague is a vector-borne disease caused by Yersinia pestis. Transmitted by fleas from rodent reservoirs, Y. pestis emerged less than 6000 years ago from an enteric bacterial ancestor through events of gene gain and genome reduction. It is a highly remarkable model for the understanding of pathogenic bacteria evolution, and a major concern for public health as highlighted by recent human outbreaks. A complex set of virulence determinants, including the Yersinia outer membrane proteins (Yops), the broad range protease Pla, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and iron capture systems play critical roles in the molecular strategies that Y. pestis employs to subvert the human immune system, allowing unrestricted bacterial replication in lymph nodes (bubonic plague) and in lungs (pneumonic plague). Some of these immunogenic proteins as well as the capsular antigen F1 are exploited for diagnostic purposes, which are critical in the context of the rapid onset of death in the absence of antibiotic treatment (less than a week for bubonic plague and less than 48 hours for pneumonic plague). In here, we review recent research advances on Y. pestis evolution, virulence factors function, bacterial strategies to subvert mammalian innate immune responses, vaccination and...
Source: Microbes and Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 29 May 2020Source: Journal of Alloys and CompoundsAuthor(s): Yuelin Xie, Shenghui Xie, Haipeng Yang, Yuanming Deng, Haixia Qian, Xierong Zeng
Source: Journal of Alloys and Compounds - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: 30 May 2020Source: New Scientist, Volume 246, Issue 3284Author(s): Alice Klein
Source: New Scientist - Category: Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 30 March 2020Source: Journal of Genetics and GenomicsAuthor(s): Gang Liu, Haijuan Xiao, Linlin Liu, Lingyun Guo, Ruolan Guo, Xuyun Hu, Chanjuan Hao, Jingang Gui, Weiwei Jiao, Fang Xu, Adong Shen, Wei Li
Source: Journal of Genetics and Genomics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Abstract The reported number of new cases underestimates the real spread of COVID-19 pandemic because of non-tested asymptomatic people and limited global access to reliable diagnostic tests. In this context, COVID-19 mortality with confirmed diagnosis becomes an attractive source of information to be included in the analysis of perspectives and proposals. Objective data are required to calculate the capacity of resources provided by health systems. New strategies are needed to stabilize or minimize the mortality surge. However, we will not afford this goal until more alternatives were available. We still need an ...
Source: The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Tohoku J Exp Med Source Type: research
We present one of the first successful cases of VV-ECMO support to recovery of COVID-19 respiratory failure in North America.
Source: ASAIO Journal - Category: Medical Devices Tags: Management of COVID-19 Patients Source Type: research
written by Dr. Stephen A. Berger A frightening pandemic arises from animals in Asia and spreads westward, killing thousands in Italy, France, Spain, and many other countries. The more severe infections are characterized by cough and fever, leading to progressive pneumonia. There is no specific treatment available, and entire cultures live in fear and uncertainty.   And so, during 541-542 C.E. Yersinia pestis the bacterium that causes bubonic plague, spread out from China into the Byzantine Empire. Few were spared, and an estimated 25 to 100 million Europeans went on to die during repeated waves of infec...
Source: GIDEON blog - Category: Databases & Libraries Authors: Tags: Ebooks Epidemiology Events Outbreaks Source Type: blogs
Qingwen Zhang1†, Youquan Xin1†, Haihong Zhao1, Rongjiao Liu2, Xiaoqing Xu1, Yanfeng Yan2, Zhipeng Kong1, Tong Wang2, Zhizhen Qi1, Qi Zhang1, Yang You2, Yajun Song2, Yujun Cui2, Ruifu Yang2*, Xuefei Zhang1* and Zongmin Du2* 1Qinghai Institute for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control, Xining, China 2State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, China Yersinia pestis is the etiological agent of the notorious plague that has claimed millions of deaths in history. Of the four known Y. pestis biovars (Antiqua, Medievalis, Orientalis, and ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract Here, we report a dual-route vaccination approach for plague, able to induce a rapid response involving systemic and mucosal immunity, whilst also providing ease of use in those resource-poor settings most vulnerable to disease outbreaks. This novel vaccine (VypVaxDuo) comprises the recombinant F1 and V proteins in free association. VypVaxDuo has been designed for administration via a sub-cutaneous priming dose followed by a single oral booster dose and has been demonstrated to induce early onset immunity 14 days after the primary immunisation; full protective efficacy against live organism challenge wa...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Abstract Outbreaks of plague have been recognized in Zambia since 1917 (1). On April 10, 2015, Zambia's Ministry of Health was notified by the Eastern Provincial Medical Office of possible bubonic plague cases in Nyimba District. Eleven patients with acute fever and cervical lymphadenopathy had been evaluated at two rural health centers during March 28-April 9, 2015; three patients died. To confirm the outbreak and develop control measures, the Zambia Ministry of Health's Field Epidemiology Training Program (ZFETP) conducted epidemiologic and laboratory investigations in partnership with the University of Zambia's...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
Whether they knew it as the Black Death, the pestilence, or simply the plague, few diseases struck more fear into the hearts of medieval Europeans than the bubonic plague. During the outbreak in the 1340s and 1350s, around one-third of Europe's population are believed to have been killed by Yersinia pestis, a bacterium carried by fleas on rodents.
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Media Watch Source Type: research
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